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FRIDAY - FEBRUARY 29, 2008 - ISSUE NO. 300

Dear Friends of Wireless Messaging,

It's cold and snowing here in Illinois — and I have a bad case of the flu, so there won't be much of an editorial section this week. Many of our readers and several of our advertisers are at the IWCE show in Las Vegas. Maybe our unpaid-roving reporter Ron Mercer will bring us back some interesting news for next week's issue — although there is no shortage of news this week.

I want to welcome GTES back into our family of advertisers. Their new ad follows below. GTES is the only Glenayre authorized software support provider in the paging industry.

Now on to more news and views . . .

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brad dye
Wireless Messaging Newsletter
  • VoIP
  • Wi-Fi
  • Paging
  • WiMAX
  • Telemetry
  • Location Services
  • Wireless Messaging
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This is my weekly newsletter about Wireless Messaging. You are receiving this because you have either communicated with me in the past about a wireless topic, or your address was included in another e-mail that I received on the same subject. This is not a SPAM. If you have received this message in error, or you are not interested in these topics, please click here, then click on "send" and you will be promptly removed from the mailing list.

iland internet sulutions This newsletter is brought to you by the generous support of our advertisers and the courtesy of iland Internet Solutions Corporation. For more information about the web-hosting services available from iland Internet Solutions Corporation, please click on their logo to the left.

A new issue of The Wireless Messaging Newsletter gets posted on the web each week. A notification goes out by e-mail to subscribers on most Fridays around noon central US time. The notification message has a link to the actual newsletter on the Internet. That way it doesn't fill up your incoming e-mail account.

There is no charge for subscription and there are no membership restrictions. Readers are a very select group of wireless industry professionals, and include the senior managers of many of the world's major Paging and Wireless Data companies. There is an even mix of operations managers, marketing people, and engineers—so I try to include items of interest to all three groups. It's all about staying up-to-date with business trends and technology. I regularly get readers' comments, so this newsletter has become a community forum for the Paging, and Wireless Data communities. You are welcome to contribute your ideas and opinions. Unless otherwise requested, all correspondence addressed to me is subject to publication in the newsletter and on my web site. I am very careful to protect the anonymity of those who request it.

NOTE: This newsletter is best viewed at screen resolutions of 800x600 (good) or 1024x768 (better). Any current revision of web browser should work fine. Please notify me of any problems with viewing. This site is compliant with XHTML 1.0 transitional coding for easy access from wireless devices. (XML 1.0/ISO 8859-1.)

Anyone wanting to help support The Wireless Messaging Newsletter can do so by clicking on the PayPal Donate button above.

Brad Dye, Ron Mercer, and Vic Jackson are friends and colleagues who work both together and independently, on wireline and wireless communications projects. Click here  left arrow for a summary of their qualifications and experience. They collaborate on consulting assignments, and share the work according to their individual expertise and their schedules.


enterprise 2008

AAPC will join with the Enterprise Wireless Alliance to host more than 400 wireless industry professionals, including carriers, suppliers, and network providers, for three days of information sharing, technical sessions, vendor exhibits, and networking opportunities.

Paging and wireless technologies are recognized as a “must have” component in all emergency situations, due to their affordability and reliability. Spend three days with your colleagues attending dedicated paging-related sessions, perusing cutting-edge technologies in the vendor hall, and networking with friends.

With more than 330 days of sunshine, 200 golf courses, an array of outdoor activities, and outstanding shopping and dining, Scottsdale is the premier destination for business and leisure travelers. The new venue, the Doubletree Paradise Valley Resort, is inspired by Frank Lloyd Wright and is situated on 22 acres of towering palms, has majestic desert mountain views, is easily accessible from the Sky Harbor airport, and is located minutes from Old Town Scottsdale.

Call for presentations

We are currently soliciting speakers and presentation ideas for the fall conference. Please e-mail Linda at with presentation suggestions or speakers that you would like to hear.

enterprise wireless 2008



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The Voice of US Paging Carriers

Thanks to our Gold Vendor member!

PRISM Paging

Thanks to our Silver Vendor Members!
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ISC Technologies, Inc.
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Recurrent Software Solutions, Inc.
Unication USA

Thanks to our Bronze Member Vendors!

AAPC Executive Director
441 N. Crestwood Drive
Wilmington, NC 28405
Tel: 866-301-2272
AAPC Regulatory Affairs Office
Suite 250
2154 Wisconsin Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20007-2280
Tel: 202-223-3772
Fax: 202-315-3587



Advertiser Index

AAPC—American Association of Paging Carriers
ATCOM Wireless Paging & Wireless Network Planners LLC
CPR Technology, Inc. Preferred Wireless
CRS—Critical Response Systems Prism Paging
CVC Paging Raven Systems
Daviscomms USA Ron Mercer
EMMA—European Mobile Messaging Association Swissphone
GTES—Global Technical Engineering Solutions 
Hark Systems TAPS—Texas Association of Paging Services
HMCE, Inc.  
InfoRad, Inc.    UCOM Paging
Ira Wiesenfeld Unication USA
Minilec Service, Inc. United Communications Corp.
Nighthawk Systems, Inc. WiPath Communications
Northeast Paging Zetron Inc.

Sprint's issues more difficult than expected

February 28, 2008 1:24:54 PM CST

In his first conference call with investors since he took the helm two months ago, Sprint Nextel CEO Dan Hesse admitted that the problems at the third largest U.S. wireless operator are more difficult than he expected, adding that 2008 will continue to be difficult even though he expects more promising results long term. He emphasized the changes he has made so far: eliminating 4,000 employees, reducing the number of distribution points, including 125 company-owned stores and consolidating Sprint's headquarters to Overland Park, Kan. "I see great assets: people, technology, customer base and spectrum position," Hesse said.

The company is jumping on the unlimited rate plan bandwagon but with a slight twist. Sprint's "Simply Everything" plan provides unlimited voice, data, text, email, Web-surfing, Sprint TV, Sprint Music, GPS Navigation, Direct Connect and Group Connect for $99.99 a month. The company also has an unlimited voice only plan for $89.99 per month. Carriers Verizon Wireless and AT&T have unlimited voice plans for $99.99. T-Mobile USA has an unlimited voice and text message plan for $99.99.

Here are the highlights of the firm's fourth quarter and year-end 2007 results:

Wireless revenues: Fourth quarter revenues were $8.5 billion, a 2 percent decline over the previous quarter and a 6 percent decline over fourth quarter 2006.

Subscribers: Sprint's wireless subscriber base declined 108,000 in fourth quarter. The carrier's total subscriber base at year-end was 53.8 million. This compares with 53.1 million at year-end 2006. At fourth quarter Sprint had about 35 million CDMA subscribers, 17.3 million iDEN subscribers and 1.4 million PowerSource subscribers who access both platforms.

Churn: Fourth-quarter post-paid churn was 2.3 percent, the same as third quarter for both iDEN and CDMA. Boost prepaid churn was 7.5 percent compared with 6.2 percent in third quarter 2007.

ARPU: Post-paid ARPU was $58, down from $59 in third quarter. iDEN postpaid ARPU dropped 7 percent. Prepaid ARPU was slightly under $28 in the fourth quarter, down from $30 in third quarter.

Data: Data contributed more than $11 to postpaid ARPU. On the CDMA base, data ARPU was $14, an increase of 21 percent. Data now accounts for 20 percent of total ARPU.

For more on Sprint's unlimited plans:
- read this release

For more on Sprint's Q4:
- read this release

Source: FierceWireless

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New Study Confirms That Living Tissue is Affected by Mobile Phone Radiation

A new study completed by the Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) on effects of the mobile phone radiation on human skin strengthens the results of the human cell line analyses: living tissue responds to mobile phone radiation. The results were published in the latest issue of BMC Genomics.

Earlier studies have shown that mobile phone radiation (radio-frequency modulated electromagnetic fields; RF-EMF) alters protein expression and activity in human endothelial cell line. STUK’s new study is globally unique, because for the first time it has examined whether a local exposure of human skin to RF-EMF will cause changes in protein expression in living people.

In the study, a small area of forearm’s skin in 10 volunteers was exposed to GSM signal for one hour. After that skin biopsies were collected from exposed and non-exposed areas of skin and all extractable proteins were examined. The analysis of 580 proteins identified 8 proteins that were statistically significantly affected.

"Mobile phone radiation has some biological effect. Even if the changes are small, they still exist", says Dariusz Leszczynski, Research Professor at STUK.

According to Leszczynski it is much too early to say will these changes induced by the mobile phone radiation have any effect on health.

"The aim of this project was not detecting any possible health effects, but to find out whether living human skin responds to mobile phone radiation and whether proteomics approach is useful in sorting out this issue", he states.

A more extensive study with 50-100 volunteers is now planned at STUK. If the financing is settled, the study will be launched in 2009.

Posted to the site on 26th February 2008

Source: Cellular News

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Democratic bill could force Apple, AT&T to unlock iPhone

Posted by Anne Broache
February 26, 2008 12:18 PM PST

When T-Mobile began selling Apple's iPhone in Germany last fall, a legal skirmish ensued, forcing the wireless carrier to sell it untethered to a contract — at $1,460, no less. T-Mobile eventually persuaded a court that the two-year contract was legal.

Now that same kind of European rule would be imported into the United States — meaning AT&T would be legally required to sell a contract-free iPhone — if a new Democratic proposal in the U.S. House of Representatives becomes law.

Sponsored by Rep. Ed Markey (D-Mass.), a congressman who serves as chairman of a House telecommunications and Internet panel, it's similar to but somewhat more sweeping than a bill proposed in the Senate last year. His subcommittee has scheduled a hearing on the plan for Wednesday morning.

The draft legislation says every mobile provider "shall offer to consumers the opportunity to purchase subsidy-free wireless customer equipment."

The emergence of the 27-page draft bill (PDF), called the Wireless Consumer Protection and Community Broadband Empowerment Act, underscores what is apparently growing concern among congressional Democrats during this session with what they seem to view as insufficiently flexible, forthcoming dealings among wireless carriers and their customers.

iphone image Both bills would direct the Federal Communications Commission to establish a number of new rules for wireless carriers. Among other things, those companies would have to give abundant disclosure to their customers about their rate plans in a "clear, plain, and conspicuous manner," breaking out the cost of everything from early termination fees to state and local taxes for the customer.

Carriers would also be obligated to devise more detailed maps of their network coverage areas. And they'd have to permit customers to cancel a contract for any reason without penalty within the first 30 days and to prorate any fees associated with leaving a contract early.

Unlike the Senate bill, Markey's proposal would also dictate that wireless carriers offer customers the choice of buying a wireless service plan with no early termination fee.

Wireless carriers say they charge early termination fees because they've subsidized the cost of the wireless handset used with it, but Markey's draft bill would also require them to offer consumers the ability to buy "subsidy-free" equipment without a long-term service plan — and at the same price as comparable service for a plan with subsidized equipment.

That's where the potential implications for the iPhone and similar devices come in. Right now, signing up for iPhone service is a two-year commitment on top of the price of the gadget itself. But, assuming that AT&T subsidizes at least some of the cost of the phone — one estimate says the subsidy is around $400 — Markey's bill would apparently force AT&T to sell it at an unsubsidized price and for a contract length of the customer's choosing.

To be sure, such an option may not even be in some consumers' best financial interests. iPhone unlocking has become a popular pastime, with thousands of consumers buying them without pledging allegiance to AT&T in the first place. But Markey's bill, in the interest of consumer protection, would force carriers to offer such a choice anyway.

The wireless industry has long been lobbying for a uniform set of rules governing its operations from the federal level, complaining that states have imposed a patchwork of obligations for billing and other practices that don't mesh well with the national nature of wireless service. But if its less-than-enthusiastic reaction to the Senate bill is any indication, the House's prescriptive approach likely isn't what it had in mind.

A lobbyist for CTIA-The Wireless Association, which represents the major wireless carriers, is scheduled to speak about the bill at a hearing Wednesday, but the organization declined to speak further about the proposal beforehand.

"Generally, we're looking forward to the hearing and the opportunity to talk about the many consumer benefits that accompany a uniform set of standards for wireless policy in America," CTIA spokesman Joe Farren said Tuesday.

The wireless industry is likely to point out some of the steps it has already undertaken in the absence of regulations in an apparent effort to be more consumer-friendly. Most of the major carriers have announced plans to prorate the early termination fees for their contracts, for instance.

Markey's proposal doesn't stop at wireless issues. It also includes a section that would reserve the right of municipalities to offer their own broadband services--a trend that has encountered mixed success thus far. The bill says such networks "serve the public interest" and that states should not be allowed to make laws thwarting their creation.

Passing federal legislation to promote such offerings isn't new. The idea grew out of attempts by state legislatures, often pressured by major Internet service providers like Verizon and Comcast, to enact laws restricting city governments from getting into the same game. But so far, despite support in both chambers of Congress, no such measure has been made into law yet.

A group of major trade associations representing telephone companies both large and small said in a Tuesday letter to Markey that they're concerned his proposal will create "unintended consequences" that undermine his stated goal of getting affordable broadband to more places.

"We still believe federal municipal broadband legislation would chill private investment in existing and future broadband networks," wrote the association executives. "This ultimately leads to less, not more, broadband deployment as the investment risk for private entities is unnecessarily increased and private capital is displaced with public funds, needlessly burdening taxpayers."

Source: c|net

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American Association of Paging Carriers
February 25, 2008



In the Matter of ) 
AT&T ILECs ) WC Docket No. 08-23
Petition for Declaratory Ruling ) 


To:  The Secretary,
Federal Communications Commission



     THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF PAGING CARRIERS (AAPC), by its attorney, respectfully submits its comments to the Federal Communications Commission pursuant to its Public Notice, DA 08-391, released February 14, 2008, soliciting initial and reply comments by interested parties on a petition for declaratory ruling filed by AT&T.

     As its comments, AAPC respectfully states:

     The Public Notice was issued in response to a Petition for a Declaratory Ruling filed by the AT&T ILECs on February 5, 2008 (the “Petition”). In the Petition, AT&T outlined a dispute it is having with Sprint Nextel over Sprint Nextel’s attempt to opt in to certain interconnection agreements entered into between each of the BellSouth ILECs and two of Sprint’s wireless affiliates prior to the acquisition of BellSouth by AT&T. According to the Petition, Sprint Nextel is seeking to port these agreements into the 13 legacy AT&T states under authority of Commitment 7.1 undertaken by AT&T as a condition of having its acquisition of BellSouth approved by the Commission.1 The agreements in question provide, in relevant part, for a “bill and keep” compensation arrangement between the Sprint affiliates and the BellSouth ILECs, and for the equal sharing of the costs of interconnection facilities.

     According to AT&T, traffic between the BellSouth ILECs and Sprint is roughly balanced, which is why BellSouth was willing to enter into agreements with Sprint with these particular compensation arrangements. However, there is a significant imbalance of traffic between the Sprint companies (now including Nextel) and the legacy AT&T ILECs, and thus such provisions would work to AT&T’s economic disadvantage in its legacy states. AT&T thus seeks a declaratory ruling by this Commission that the “bill and keep” compensation arrangements and the related facility pricing arrangements specified in the agreements fall within the “state-specific pricing” exception in Commitment 7.1, and therefore that the agreements in question may not be ported pursuant to Commitment 7.1. AT&T further seeks declarations by the Commission that Commitment 7.1 does not abrogate or supersede the restrictions on “opting in” to interconnection agreements otherwise imposed by the Commission under Section 252(i) of the Communications Act, or the restrictions on in-state “opting in” otherwise promulgated by the Commission.

     AAPC is the national trade association representing the interests of paging carriers throughout the United States. AAPC’s members include the majority of paging operators holding nationwide licenses under Parts 22, 24 and 90 of the Commission’s rules; a representative cross-section of operators of regional and local paging systems licensed by the Commission; as well as equipment suppliers, subscriber device manufacturers and other vendors to the carrier industry. Paging carriers are telecommunications carriers subject to the Commission’s Part 51 rules governing interconnection arrangements and, as requesting carriers, can and do rely on Commitment 7.1 in their interconnection negotiations with the AT&T ILECs.

     As a preliminary matter, AAPC entirely agrees with AT&T that the Commission can and properly should issue a declaratory ruling authoritatively construing Commitment 7.1 on the issues raised by AT&T. Like the Part 51 rules themselves, Commitment 7.1 is a federal requirement that should be definitively construed by this Commission when substantial disputes of the sort raised by AT&T are involved. The Commission properly should not leave it to the states to try to divine the meaning of federal requirements the Commission has imposed.

     The Commission also should issue its ruling expeditiously, so that the affected carriers can move on with their business of serving the public and not have their dispute drag on interminably.

     That said, AAPC submits that AT&T is wrong on the merits on both counts, and the Commission should so rule. In the parlance of interconnection arrangements, “state-specific pricing” simply refers to tariffed rates that may vary from one state to another. Expanding that concept to encompass “bill and keep” compensation arrangements would stretch it beyond recognition.

     Similarly, if Commitment 7.1 was not intended to abrogate or supersede generally applicable restrictions on “opting in” to interconnection agreements, contrary to AT&T’s position, it is hard to fathom what purpose Commitment 7.1 was intended to serve in the first place. It seems self-evident that the entire notion of “reducing transaction costs associated with interconnection agreements” is intended to give requesting carriers the option of “opting in” to interconnection agreements that would not otherwise be subject to the “opt in” technique (because of legal restrictions on “opting in”). Similarly, the evident purpose of eliminating those restrictions would be to drastically curtail the time and expense needed to negotiate interconnection agreements. Accordingly, on this issue as well, the Commission should rule expeditiously that Commitment 7.1 does, in fact, abrogate and supersede restrictions on requesting carriers “opting in” to interconnection agreements otherwise contained in the statute and the Commission’s rules.

     AAPC does not by its comments intend to take sides in the underlying dispute between the AT&T ILECs and Sprint Nextel. However, AAPC does respectfully submit that any relief granted to the AT&T ILECs, if they are entitled to any, must be done by properly applying the provisions of the interconnection agreements themselves, and not, as AT&T would have the Commission do, by effectively eviscerating Commitment 7.1 in the guise of interpreting it.

  Respectfully submitted,
  By: s/Kenneth E. Hardman               
      Kenneth E. Hardman
  2154 Wisconsin Avenue, NW, Ste 250
Washington, DC 20007
Telephone: (202) 223-3772
Facsimile: (202) 315-3587
  Its Attorney

February 25, 2007


1 See AT&T, Inc. and BellSouth Corporation Application for Transfer of Control (Memorandum Opinion and Order), WC Docket No. 06-74, FCC 06-189, adopted December 29, 2006 and released March 26, 2007, at p. 149 (Appendix F, Reducing Transaction Costs Associated with Interconnection Agreements).

Source: AAPC

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New Phone Tax

Voter Approval Needed to Replace Obsolete Telecommunications Fees

Thursday, February 28, 2008

Since a federal court has rendered the Internal Revenue Service’s old time-and-distance phone bill tax obsolete, the City of Santa Barbara, among others, must rewrite its own updated telecommunications tax — and quickly. At stake is almost $4 million in annual revenue, money that currently makes up approximately 14 percent of the city’s road maintenance budget — counting both general fund and Measure D monies. The telecommunications tax also helps pay for emergency and recreational services.

The object of the game is to get voter approval before the communications providers sue the city, whose current Utility Users Tax (UUT) is written as a mirror image of the Federal Excise Tax that a federal court ruled against in May 2006, saying that the IRS could no longer tax calls based on time and distance — a practice that dates back to the Spanish-American Civil War, said City Finance Director Bob Peirson. As a result of the ruling, the federal tax was suspended, and the IRS was forced to repay taxpayers $25. There is some irony, Peirson said, in the fact that cities throughout the nation mimicked the federal tax code’s language at the behest of the telecommunications companies, to make calculations easier for them. So when the IRS updated its excise tax law in the 1970s to apply to prepaid phone cards and wireless phone plans, the cities immediately followed suit. But the court struck down the federal rewrite, and now the cities are sitting ducks for legal challenges, which telecommunications companies have already initiated in five cities, including Sacramento and Los Angeles.

In order to avoid a domino effect of budget cuts and cash displacements, Peirson said that the city must rework the language of the current utility tax to apply to newer forms of communication but without reference to time or distance. The new tax would be collected from both wired and wireless phone plans, and Voice Over Internet technology as well.

The council asked whether it would include other Internet use. “What are we actually measuring here?” asked Council member Grant House. “People leave their computers on, just sitting there: Do they get charged?” Peirson explained that federal law prevents taxing the Internet for at least the next 10 years. “We aren't going to tax email or Internet access,” he said.

The city’s current UUT collects on a limited range of telecommunications — phone and cable — at a rate of 6 percent. The expansion in communications methods means that a broader base of technology can be taxed, Peirson said, but at a lower rate, allowing the city to reduce most individuals’ tax bills while capturing the same amount of revenue. Paging, interstate Internet communications, private communication services, Internet protocol television (IPTV), and voice service could all be subject to taxation. Similar ordinances spreading the burden among services have passed by wide margins in several cities.

The council appeared to be leaning toward placing a rewritten utility tax on the November 2008 ballot, when it would require a majority vote. This means it would have to be rushed through the Ordinance and Finance Committees. However, only if the ordinance is placed on the ballot during a general election can it be passed by a simple majority vote, and the next opportunity for that is November 2009. If placed on the ballot during a special election, it would require a two-thirds majority to pass.

Source: Santa Barbara Independent


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TAPS—Texas Association of Paging Services is looking for partners on 152.480 MHz. Our association currently uses Echostar, formerly Spacecom, for distribution of our data and a large percentage of our members use the satellite to key their TXs. We have a CommOneSystems Gateway at the uplink in Chicago with a back-up running 24/7. Our paging coverage area on 152.480 MHz currently encompasses Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Louisiana, and Kansas. The TAPS paging coverage is available to members of our Network on 152.480 MHz for $.005 a transmitter (per capcode per month), broken down by state or regions of states and members receive a credit towards their bill for each transmitter which they provide to our coverage. Members are able to use the satellite for their own use If you are on 152.480 MHz or just need a satellite for keying your own TXs on your frequency we have the solution for you.

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Police Blotter: Armed robbers nabbed through text messages

By Declan McCullagh
Staff Writer, CNET
Published: February 25, 2008, 12:56 PM PST

Police Blotter is a weekly CNET report on the intersection of technology and the law.

What: Armed-robbery defendants object to the use of their text messages as evidence in their criminal trials.

When: U.S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals rules on February 12.

Outcome: Convictions upheld.

What happened, according to court documents:
Two men convicted of armed robbery made the mistake of using text messages—which their wireless provider turned over to police when asked.

Derrick McCreary and his co-defendant, Jonathan Hunter, were accused of masterminding heists at credit unions, with one article in Credit Union Journal reporting that they made off with almost $300,000.

Prosecutors obtained the contents of the archived text messages by sending a grand jury subpoena to SkyTel. McCreary and Hunter were each convicted of one count of conspiracy, two counts of bank robbery, and two counts of using a firearm in a violent crime. They appealed.

This isn't the first time the Police Blotter has covered how telecommunications providers store copies of text messages—and how police have obtained them to use in criminal prosecutions.

An alleged cocaine dealer in the Washington, D.C., area had his SMS text messages used against him, as did a wire fraud defendant last year. They also popped up in the Kobe Bryant sex case and the trial involving the attempted murder of rapper 50 Cent.

Some of the ground rules remain unsettled, with defense attorneys frequently arguing that privacy laws and the U.S. Constitution's Fourth Amendment suggest that archived text messages should be—legally speaking—difficult to obtain. Police, on the other hand, believe that they should be much easier to obtain.

In last year's wire fraud case, defense attorneys said prosecutors should have requested a proper search warrant signed by a judge. They lost, with the judge saying only a subpoena signed by a prosecutor was needed.

In the current armed-robbery case, McCreary, one of the defendants, asked the district court judge in January 2005 to suppress the text messages obtained from SkyTel on the grounds that the subpoena violated the Fourth Amendment and the Stored Communications Act. Hunter joined that motion. (SkyTel sells pagers and two-way messaging devices.)

In May 2005, U.S. District Judge Frederick J. Martone denied that request. Earlier this month, so did the 9th Circuit, which concluded that the evidence against McCreary was so overwhelming, it wasn't even going to bother worrying about text messages.

Hunter, the other armed-robbery defendant in the same proceeding, claimed that the text messages were improperly authenticated and that the full contents, rather than a summary, should have been admitted as evidence. The 9th Circuit rejected his argument as well.

Excerpts from the 9th Circuit's decision in U.S. v. McCreary:
The investigation of the two robberies revealed that McCreary and his co-defendant, Jonathan Hunter, communicated by text messages in planning the two robberies. The government had a grand-jury subpoena issued to the service provider, MCI/SkyTel, seeking the toll records, including the text of the messages.

McCreary contends that he had a reasonable expectation of privacy in these messages and that the acquisition of these messages by a grand-jury subpoena without a search warrant violated his rights under the Fourth Amendment. He contends that to the extent 18 U.S.C. Section 2703 of the Stored Communications Act authorized obtaining the text messages without probable cause and a search warrant, it violated his Fourth Amendment rights.

We do not reach this contention because we conclude that any error in admission of the text messages was harmless. The government presented overwhelming separate, independent evidence of McCreary's guilt. The government presented the testimony of two of the co-conspirators, who participated in the robberies detailing McCreary's leadership in planning the robberies, providing clothes and guns, and giving instructions as to how the robberies were to be conducted and the getaway to be achieved. McCreary's participation was also corroborated by other substantial evidence.

Excerpts from the 9th Circuit's decision in U.S. v. Hunter:
Hunter claims that the text message testimony was improperly authenticated and that the text messages were improperly admitted because only summarized excerpts were admitted. However, these claims lack merit.

"A document can be authenticated by the testimony of a witness with knowledge." United States v. Workinger. Here, the government properly authenticated the text messages by using the testimonies of the senior manager of the pagers' service provider, the FBI agent who compiled the records, and Hunter's co-conspirators.

Excerpts of a compilation of evidence are admissible. United States v. Soulard, 730 F.2d 1292, 1300-01 (9th Cir.1984) (holding that a summary chart of evidence was properly admitted). If the defendant objects to the summary of the evidence, he cannot have the evidence excluded, but instead can compel the government to introduce the rest of the incomplete evidence. Id. at 1301. Therefore, the court properly admitted the excerpts of text messages.

Source: c|net

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FCC hearing weighs net neutrality

by Chris Kanaracus
Feb 25, 2008 4:22 pm

Advocates on both sides of the net neutrality debate descended on Harvard Law School Monday for a U.S. Federal Communications Commission hearing that multiple speakers suggested was crucial to the Internet’s future.

Members of the FCC, along with industry representatives, legal scholars and pro-neutrality advocates spoke at the hearing, which drew an overflow crowd.

“The Internet is as much mine and yours as it is AT&T’s and Comcast’s,” said U.S. Representative Edward Markey, a Democrat from Massachusetts.

Markey has filed a bill along with U.S. Representative Charles Pickering, a Republican from Mississippi, in support of net neutrality, the idea that network providers shouldn't discriminate against Web sites or various types of traffic. The FCC is investigating complaints that Comcast has interfered with P-to-P (peer-to-peer) traffic associated with file-sharing sites.

“Network operators are making choices right now that will determine how Americans communicate, now and in the future,” said FCC Commissioner Michael J. Copps. “I am not saying that any or all of these practices are unlawful. I am saying that choices like these, when you add them all together, are going to determine what kind of Internet we have in the future.”

Other FCC members echoed Copps.

“Respect for the free flow of information was bred into our country from its founding,” said Commissioner Jonathan S. Adelstein. “We must preserve the open and neutral character of the Internet, which has been its hallmark from the very beginning. It is clear consumers don’t want the Internet to be a another version of old media dominated by a number of giants.”

Gilles Bian Rosa, CEO of Vuze, a video service that uses P-to-P technology, said that while his company competes with Comcast in the delivery of content, the latter company holds an unfair advantage. “What we have here is a horse race, and Comcast owns the racetrack. I agree the market should decide which services win … but there is no market without basic ground rules and transparency. … We believe corporate assurances of good faith are not enough.”

Marvin Ammori, chief counsel for Free Press, an advocacy group backing the net neutrality effort, also described Monday’s discussion in sweeping terms.

“This hearing is not about technical details of managing networks, it’s about the future of online TV and the Internet,” Ammori said. “By targeting P-to-P, Comcast is disrupting investment and innovation in its online competition.”

But David Cohen, executive vice president of Comcast, was as vigorous in defending his company’s practices as its critics were in lambasting it.

“Comcast does not block any Web site, application or protocol, including P-to-P. Period,” he said.

The company only “manages” protocols such as P-to-P during limited periods of heavy traffic; does so in limited geographic areas; only manages uploads, not downloads; and merely delays, not totally blocks requests for uploads, he said.

“It’s true that to maximize our customer’s Internet experience, we do manage our network. But don’t let the rhetoric scare you. There’s nothing wrong with it,” he said. “Every network must be managed. Our customers want us to manage network congestion so they can do what they want, when they want, at reasonable speeds.”

Tom Tauke, executive vice president for public affairs-policy and communications at Verizon, noted that his company’s investment in fiber-optic networks has resulted in exponential growth in the size of data pipes to residential homes, but network management is still necessary. “As capacity grows so do the applications and services. This is a good thing, but you still have to have reasonable network practices,” he said.

Later Monday, the hearing continued with a second panel, this one stocked with an array of technologists from the academic and commercial sectors.

“Some kind of network management is critical. … the question is how to do that in an open manner,” said Daniel Weitzner, director of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Decentralized Information Group.

At the same time, the Web’s days as a primarily client-server environment are over, he suggested: “The profile of the way people use the Internet today is peer-to-peer, and we have to deal with it. But I think it poses a challenge way beyond whether we all get our BitTorrent or not. What’s really at stake is everyone’s ability to speak with everyone else.”

David Clark, a senior research scientist at MIT, predicted the debate could ultimately be settled by moving away from current pricing plans—which see ISPs (Internet service providers) charge varying rates for a broadband line’s speed, but not for the amount of content downloaded—to a cost schedule based more on data volume.

Eric Klinker, CTO of BitTorrent, said it is wrong for the industry to view his company as a force “endlessly consuming bandwidth.”

In fact, he argued, BitTorrent has actually solved a problem: “How do we effectively move large files on the Internet?” He listed off a series of public and private-sector organizations, ranging from film studios to NASA, which employ P-to-P file sharing to deliver large files.

Efforts to thwart P-to-P traffic “would stamp out in its infancy the most promising technology we have to deliver a world of near-infinite content,” he said, adding that the U.S. falls far behind other nations in terms of its Internet infrastructure: “Geopolitically, we might think of ourselves as a superpower, but when measured against network power we’re a Third World country at best.”

Source: Macworld

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T-Mobile Canada With 3G In the Works

Wednesday February 27, 2008 4:36 PM CST - By: Michael Kwan

Canada needs another major GSM service provider, because Rogers/Fido pretty much has a GSM monopoly around these parts. Sure, us Canucks can hop over to the CDMA side, but if you want to use unlocked world phones, GSM is really the only way to go. As it turns out, Canadians may soon be faced with another GSM option in the form of T-Mobile. And it's gonna be 3G.

That's the report coming from a CIBC internal note, pointing toward T-Mobile's interest in establishing a 3G network in Canada. The note says that T-Mobile — based out of Germany — is not interested in buying an existing network, but would rather set up a whole new network of their own. Competition could help to drive prices down and options up around these parts.

The biggest hurdle for T-Mobile is that Canadian Telecommunications law prefers (requires?) that the owner of a telecommunication company be Canadian. Maybe T-Mo can find a way in through a Canadian partner?

Source: Mobile Magazine


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Dispatch delay just the tip of the iceberg

Thu. Feb 28 - 6:09 AM

Your Feb. 23 story regarding the 29-minute delay between a 911 call and a fire department alert in West Wentworth ("Dispatcher’s delay angers homeowner") may be the tip of a very large iceberg headed toward tens of thousands of homeowners across the province.

This is not an isolated occurrence.

Many fire chiefs in Nova Scotia can give accounts of serious delays or errors in notifying fire departments of a needed emergency response.

Nova Scotians see American television that shows first responders using the latest equipment, communications systems and techniques, but the sad reality is that over a third of volunteer fire departments in this province use notification arrangements that may include serious threats and risks.

It’s only a matter of time before this newspaper covers a story about a fatality caused by a delay in the notification of responders.

In 2007, the provincial government conducted a threat-risk assessment to examine the dispatch and notification of volunteer emergency service providers.

First, a couple of facts and figures:

  • About 9,000 volunteer firefighters across the province are arrayed in just over 300 services, responding to about 40,000 emergency calls per year.
  • About half of these are dispatched through municipal government operated or contracted dispatch services in a more or less professional manner.
  • The other half are notified through either private enterprises or public entities with other primary responsibilities.

The kinds of threats and risks uncovered are not trivial.

No back-up power generator: A commercial power interruption means volunteer firefighters in the local area could not be dispatched to an emergency.

Untrained/limited staff: Fire dispatch is being done in hospitals, nursing homes and a funeral home. This exists as an "add on" line of business; staff are not trained as emergency dispatchers. Worse, owners may work extra shifts because they don’t have staff to draw on when sickness or other circumstances demand.

No voice-recording systems: Standardized police and ambulance dispatch facilities have voice recording of phone and radio traffic; the lack of a voice record exposes the responsible municipality to significant liability.

Lack of formal agreements: Written agreements between dispatch agencies and the municipalities or fire departments served are rare. There is no plan to handle call overflow or to back each other up in case of evacuation, no service level guarantees, and no recourse for poor or unplanned termination of service.

Dependence on other communications systems/devices: About 65 per cent of volunteer firefighters rely on devices that receive a telephone call and electronically connect to a paging radio transmitter.

The associated risks are staggering: relying on the public telephone system; the quality of the local tower and paging transmitter, and no back-up power; and there are three communities still relying on "fire phones."

These threats and risks exist typically in communities that don’t have a property tax base and, as a result, make do with what they have.

Generally, it’s not because they don’t care or are not concerned; it’s because they don’t have the human or financial resources to draw upon.

But there is both hope and opportunity.

The province’s threat-risk consultants set out a high level strategy for turning this problem around, suggesting:

  • Establishment of an authority to set performance and training standards for volunteer public safety dispatch;
  • Consideration of regionalized fire dispatch;
  • Development of a standardized province-wide paging system for volunteers;
  • Using or developing "hardened" dispatch facilities;
  • Increasing physical and site security for vital dispatch and paging infrastructure.

This strategy requires high-level planning and co-ordination. Municipalities are major stakeholders, but provincial government initiative is required to ensure that these vital services are delivered equitably throughout Nova Scotia.

If we believe that a citizen in the rural area should have the same services and protections as one living in Halifax or Sydney, there is much work to do, as currently this is just not the case.

That high-level strategy is the hope; the opportunity is coming as well.

Within the next three to four years, the province must invest to replace the current public-safety Trunked Mobile Radio System. Much of the investment will be for infrastructure that can be used to provide state-of-the-art, safe, regionalized emergency dispatch and notification services for volunteer fire organizations similar to the current RCMP and EHS models.

The challenge for the stakeholders will be to find a fair model that takes advantage of the opportunities to deliver these vital services to a high standard.

Only then can the people of West Wentworth and dozens of other places not have to wonder whether the fire trucks will roll up in time to save them or their property.

Andy Yarrow is Pugwash Fire Chief.

Source: The Chronicle Herald

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900 MHz Paging Transmitters:
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UC Davis Tests Emergency Alert System

Written by Alicia Malaby, Anchor-Reporter
Created: 2/27/2008 9:01:27 AM — Updated: 2/27/2008 3:50:38 PM

blackberry image The University of California, Davis is testing a new campus-wide emergency notification system. Designed to notify faculty, staff, and students in the event of an emergency involving the safety and well-being of individuals, the computer based system can send urgent messages in a timely manner.

During a test Wednesday, approximately 11,300 test messages will be sent via e-mail, cell phone, facsimile, pager, and text messaging. The university community has been notified of the testing in advance, and the messages clearly state that "there is no emergency at this time."

While more universities are implementing emergency notification systems in the wake of campus shootings at Virginia Tech University and Northern Illinois University, officials at UC Davis said their new system was already in the planning stages before those campus tragedies.

"Safety is a top priority on the campus. It always is so this is one of the tools that we're going to try to use to make that happen," said Valerie Lucas, UC Davis Emergency Operations Manager.

Lucas added that the emergency notification system would only be used when necessary. "We would use it if there were an emergency on campus that the campus community needed to know something that would affect life and health, and they would need to take some kind of protective actions," she said.

On Thursday, UC Davis plans to extend the test messages to approximately 500 students. A full test of the system is expected to be conducted in the fall.

The cost of the emergency notification system is $12,000 with an annual subscription fee of $20,000.

Source: News


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BloostonLaw Telecom Update

Published by the Law Offices of Blooston, Mordkofsky, Dickens, Duffy & Prendergast, LLP

[Selected portions reproduced here with the firm's permission.]

   Vol. 11, No. 8 February 27, 2008   

MARCH 1: CPNI ANNUAL CERTIFICATION. The “Annual Certification of CPNI Compliance” for 2007 is due to be filed with the FCC by the March 1 deadline in the revised CPNI Rules. Because March 1 is a Saturday, the FCC’s rules technically allow you to file on the next business day, which is March 3. However, we recommend not waiting until the last day, since the FCC is likely to fine late filers. A company officer with personal knowledge that the company has established operating procedures adequate to ensure compliance with the rules must execute the Certification, place a copy of the Certification and accompanying Exhibits in the Company’s CPNI Compliance Records, and forward the original to BloostonLaw for filing with the FCC by February 28. BloostonLaw is prepared to help our clients meet this requirement, which we expect will be strictly enforced, by assisting with preparation of their certification filing; reviewing the filing to make sure that the required showings are made; filing the certification with the FCC, and obtaining a proof-of-filing copy for your records. Clients interested in obtaining BloostonLaw's CPNI compliance manual should contact Gerry Duffy (202- 828-5528) or Mary Sisak (202-828-5554).


PSHSB RESPONSIBLE FOR RULES PERTAINING TO DISRUPTIONS TO COMMUNICATIONS EFFECTIVE FEB. 21: The FCC’s Order delegating authority to the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau (PSHSB) to administer the Commission's rules that pertain to disruptions to communications has been published in the Federal Register, with an effective date of February 21, 2008. The Commission said this delegation is consistent with the purpose and functions of the Bureau to promote a more efficient, effective and responsive organizational structure and to better promote and address public safety, homeland security, national security, emergency management and preparedness, disaster management, and related issues. BloostonLaw contacts: Hal Mordkofsky, Ben Dickens, Gerry Duffy, and John Prendergast.

JUSTICE SEEKS NRUF, LNP DATA IN CONNECTION WITH PROBE OF VERIZON-RCC MERGER: The U.S. Justice Department’s Antitrust Division has requested access to information contained in the FCC’s Numbering Resource Utilization and Forecast (NRUF) reports filed by wireless telecommunications carriers and to disaggregated, carrier-specific local number portability (LNP) data related to wireless telecommunications carriers, in connection with its investigation of the proposed acquisition of Rural Cellular Corporation by Verizon Communications. Although the Commission’s regulations provide that proprietary and commercially sensitive information will be withheld from public disclosure, subject to the public’s right to seek disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act and implementing regulations, the Commission may disclose records to other federal agencies that have been submitted to the Commission in confidence upon another agency’s request. The Commission said it recognizes that disaggregated, carrier-specific forecast and utilization data should be treated as confidential and should be exempt from public disclosure under. Justice states in its request that it is its policy to protect the confidentiality of sensitive information and to prevent it from being shared among competitors. The Department further states that the information requested will be used only for a legitimate law enforcement purpose and that it will not disclose such sensitive information unless it is required by law or is necessary to further a legitimate law enforcement purpose. The Department maintains that if it is necessary to enclose any confidential business information in court filings, it is its policy to notify the affected party as soon as is reasonably practical, seek to file such information under seal, and make reasonable efforts to limit disclosure of the information until the affected party has had an opportunity to appear before the court and the court has ruled on any request by the affected party. The Department further states that if a request is made under the Freedom of Information Act for the disclosure of confidential information, it is the Department’s policy to assert all applicable exemptions and to use its best efforts to provide concerned parties with notice prior to the release of any information. It also states that if confidential business information becomes the subject of discovery in any litigation to which the Department is a party, it is the Department’s policy to use its best efforts to ensure that a protective order is entered, and to not voluntarily provide the information until concerned parties have had an opportunity to review and comment on the protective order and to apply to the court for further protection. Affected parties have until March 3 to oppose disclosure of NRUF and LNP data to the Department of Justice (CC Docket No. 99-200, CC Docket 95-116). BloostonLaw contacts: Hal Mordkofsky, Ben Dickens, Gerry Duffy, and John Prendergast.

FCC SEEKS COMMENTS, DATA FOR ANNUAL CMRS REPORT: The FCC has requested comments, data, and information to evaluate the state of competition among commercial mobile radio service (CMRS) providers for its Thirteenth Annual Report and Analysis of Competitive Market Conditions with Respect to Commercial Mobile Services. In the four most recent CMRS Reports, the Commission has reviewed competitive market conditions using a framework that groups indicators into four categories: (1) market structure; (2) provider conduct; (3) consumer behavior; and (4) market performance. Accordingly, when submitting responses to this Public Notice, commenters should, to the extent possible, present materials addressing these four categories of indicators. In addition to these issues and the specific matters discussed below, the Commission seeks comment generally on which indicators are useful for analyzing competitive market conditions with respect to CMRS. The FCC also requests comment on what specific criteria should be used to determine whether there is effective competition among CMRS providers. Comments in this WT Docket No. 08-27 proceeding are due March 26, and replies are due April 10. BloostonLaw contacts: Hal Mordkofsky, John Prendergast, and Cary Mitchell.


MAY 31: FCC FORM 395, EMPLOYMENT REPORT. Common carriers, including wireless carriers, with 16 or more full-time employees must file their annual Common Carrier Employment Reports (FCC Form 395) by May 31. This report tracks carrier compliance with rules requiring recruitment of minority employees. Further, the FCC requires all common carriers to report any employment discrimination complaints they received during the past year. That information is also due on May 31. The FCC encourages carriers to complete the discrimination report requirement by filling out Section V of Form 395, rather than submitting a separate report. Clients who would like assistance in filing Form 395 should contact Richard Rubino.

Source: Blooston, Mordkofsky, Dickens, Duffy and Prendergast, LLP

For additional information, contact Hal Mordkofsky at 202-828-5520 or



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The European Mobile Messaging Association

A Global Wireless Messaging Association

Please find attached the preliminary program and registration form for the next EMMA conference and Round Table meeting to be held in Crete, Greece on April 23 - 25, 2008.

Program Summary

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Registration Form

You can contact Derek Banner, EMMA President, by calling him on +44 1895 473 551 or e-mailing him at:  left arrow CLICK HERE

Visit the EMMA web site left arrow CLICK HERE


Muni Wi-Fi returns to Houston

Carol Ellison | February 27, 2008 at 7:41 am

The city of Houston plans to re-launch its muni wireless initiative and has issued an RFI to review proposals for the project. It was only a matter of time before cities recovered from the shockwaves from EarthLink’s retreat from the muni market and began re-evaluating how to provide broadband coverage. Houston is the first major city, among the many that put wireless initiatives on hold in the post-EarthLink shakeout, to announce plans to move ahead and re-issue an RFI. Houston has not scaled back its ambitions; the size of the project could be enormous.

The RFI calls for information on:

  • Network Operations Services, including “approaches for providing network operational support for the a ‘mixed use’ municipal wireless broadband network. The objective is to identify options for providing back-office network operations for municipal broadband public safety, public service, digital inclusion, and ISP wholesale customers.
  • Hotspot Network Services in “designated high traffic areas across the city” to provide competitive services to business and free access to local residents and visitors using ad-supported models. According to the RFI, excess capacity in the “ubiquitous” Wi-Fi coverage that the city now has to support its electronic parking meter payment system could be extended to also support these services.
  • ISP and Open Access Wholesale Management Services that could provide affordable broadband service “by extending excess capacity in the municipal broadband network through a wholesale open access services to multiple retail service providers.”

Houston has already implemented a Wi-Fi mesh to serve more than 479,000 residents in 10 underserved neighborhoods. According to the RFI “This population represents the 34th largest municipal WiFi market in the country. A future expansion to the 25 most underserved neighborhoods would easily put this market in the top 10 municipal wireless broadband markets ahead of Detroit, Indianapolis, and San Francisco.”

Houston is in a good economic position to revive its muni Wi-Fi plans. You'll recall it penalized EarthLink $5 million for failing to complete the build-out it contracted with the company to do. Click here to access the RFI. (Registration is required).

Source: MuniWireless

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Nighthawk Systems Inc. manufactures low cost and reliable remote control products for fire house alerting, volunteer alerting, activation of warning signs and sirens, and a number of applications for public safety. The Company manufactures the EA1 and the FAS-8 which have been designed specifically for these applications. Both products are paging based and will work with any public or private paging network. They are available in all VHF, UHF, and 900 MHz paging frequencies. The products can serve as the primary notification system or an excellent, low-cost backup to existing systems.

Public Emergency Notification & Volunteer Alerting

The EA1 is the solution for remotely activating public warning signage. Examples include tornado sirens, flash flood warnings, fire danger, Amber Alert, icy roads, etc. The EA1 can also send text messages to scrolling signs. This can occur in conjunction with the activation of audible alarms and visual strobes. This is ideal for public notification in buildings, schools, hotels, factories, etc. The group call feature allows for any number of signs or flashing lights to be activated at the same time over a wide geographic area. In addition, the EA1 Emergency Alert is the perfect solution for low cost yet highly effective alerting of volunteer fire fighters in their home. When activated the EA1 will emit an audible alarm and activate the power outlet on the units faceplate. A common setup is to simply place the EA1 on a table and plug a lamp into the faceplate. When paged from dispatch or any touch tone phone the EA1 will awaken the fire fighter to a lit room. As an option the EA1 can be ordered with a serial cable, allowing for attachment of a serial printer. When paged the alphanumeric message will be printed out at the same time the alarm sounds and the outlet is activated. The EA1 is an ideal complement to alphanumeric belt pagers common to volunteers.

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Firehouse Automation

The FAS-8 is designed for activating one or more relays in a firehouse and if desired, printing the alphanumeric message to a serial printer. For this application the FAS-8 is set to activate upon receiving the proper paging cap code sent from 911 dispatch. Up to eight different devices can be activated all with individual time functions. The most common devices to turn on include the PA amplifier, audible wake up alarm, and house lights. The most common device turned off is the stove. The FAS-8 can accept up to 8 different cap codes and have separate relay and time functions per cap code. This allows for different alerting to be accomplished at the same physical location depending upon which cap code is sent. This can be very helpful when fire crews and medical crews are housed in the same building.



Put the innovative technology of Nighthawk to work for you. For more information on any of our products or services, please contact us.

Nighthawk Systems, Inc.
10715 Gulfdale, Suite 200
San Antonio, TX 78216

Phone: 877-764-4484
Fax: 210-341-2011

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R.H. (Ron) Mercer
217 First Street South
East Northport, NY 11731
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• Cell Phone: 631-786-9359

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Advertise Here

Your company's logo and product promotion can appear right here for six months. It only costs $600.00 for a full-size ad in 26 issues—that's only $23.08 an issue. (6-month minimum run.)

Read more about the advertising plans here. left arrow CLICK HERE


Complete Technical Services For The
Communications and Electronics Industries
Design • Installation • Maintenance • Training

Ira Wiesenfeld, P.E.
Consulting Engineer
Registered Professional Engineer

Tel/Fax: 972-960-9336
Cell: 214-707-7711
7711 Scotia Dr.
Dallas, TX 75248-3112

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outrnet custom apps If you see someone in the field (like salespeople, technicians, and delivery people) using paper forms, their company could probably save a pile of money, and get much better timeliness, accuracy and efficiency, by using converting to Outr.Net's Wireless Forms. Custom applications for as little as $995, delivered in just a few days.Outr.Net has a web page on Wireless Forms for Timeports at: left arrow Their latest newsletter is: "Business Development in Mobile Data" left arrow

Please call me so we can discuss your need or your idea. Or contact me by e-mail for more information left arrow


From: Frank Mercurio
Subject: My paging history $.02
Date: February 22, 2008 2:04:18 PM CST
To: Brad Dye


I was employed by Motorola from December of 1966 until June of 1969 and worked in the Technical Training Department! I developed two training packages involving paging products during that period of time. The first was on the UHF Pageboy tone and voice pager and the second was on the MetroPage (tone only up to 10K subs) paging terminal. The Pageboy package followed on the heals of the VHF Pageboy training package developed by Bill Stupka a year earlier!

Our training packages were given to the Motorola Field Tech Reps for use in training MSS personnel. The training material was available concurrent with the product's first shipments! They were the forerunners of the MAV Packs!

FWIW My 2 cents

73, Frank, W9FM


That's all for this week folks. Please get one friend or co-worker to sign up for the newsletter..

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With best regards,
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Newsletter Editor


Brad Dye, Editor
The Wireless Messaging Newsletter
P.O. Box 13283
Springfield, IL 62791 USA

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Skype: braddye
Telephone: 217-787-2346
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“Almost everything—all external expectations, all pride, all fear of embarrassment or failure—these things just fall away in the face of death, leaving only what is truly important. Remembering that you are going to die is the best way I know to avoid the trap of thinking you have something to lose. You are already naked. There is no reason not to follow your heart.”

—Steve Jobs


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