newsletter logo
Wireless News Aggregation

Friday — November 30, 2018 — Issue No. 834

Welcome Back To The Wireless Messaging News

Nov 29, 2018, 08:30pm

Apple Warned iPhones Have A Serious Problem

Gordon Kelly, Senior Contributor
Consumer Tech
I write about technology's biggest companies

Reports continue to flood in that the iPhone XS (details), iPhone XS Max (details) and iPhone XR (details) are in trouble but now Apple [...] faces a new threat not only to its latest iPhones but every iPhone and iPad you can buy…

In short: the data on all iPhones and iPads running iOS 12 is not safe. This comes after an announcement from popular data recovery company DriveSavers that files on these devices can be accessed with “a 100% success rate”. Furthermore, unlike most security holes which are disclosed to Apple, this one is being kept secret.

Apple's iPhone XS, iPhone XS Max and iPhone XR APPLE

Why? Speaking to MacRumors, DriveSavers said it is building a service around the exploit and charging users up to $3,900 if they want to access locked devices. That said, the company stresses it is using strict identification protocols from customers to ensure they are not hacking an iPhone or iPad which doesn’t belong to them.

Whether or not you choose to believe DriveSavers about this, the problem is others may not be so ethical.

With DriveSavers keeping the flaw a secret to protect its new service, Apple has a major job on its hands to find and fix it. And until then, the race is on for more nefarious hackers to discover and exploit it ...if they aren’t already.

And the prizes are high.

Apple's new iPad Pro (2018) APPLE

After all, it doesn’t take a genius to work out that if you can build a successful business model charging owners $3,900 to recover their own data, hackers can charge at least as much to provide access to other people’s iPhones and iPads or to let you back into your device after they access and lock it.

Apple has long promoted the security of its devices as a key selling point. But at a time when sales of new iPhones are allegedly struggling, this is just the sort of development (on the back of yet another hardware recall) which is unlikely to encourage more people to buy them. . .




This newsletter has been published almost every Friday for sixteen years. If you like it, or if you have benefited from any of the news that has been re-published here, a donation or a new advertisement to help cover expenses would be sincerely appreciated. Support has lessened considerably.

Please click on the Donate button in the right-hand column and send what you can.

Wireless Messaging News

  • Emergency Radio Communications
  • Wireless Messaging
  • Critical Messaging
  • Two-way Radio
  • Technology
  • Telemetry
  • Science
  • Paging
  • Wi-Fi
wireless logo medium


This doesn't mean that nothing is ever published here that mentions a US political party—it just means that the editorial policy of this newsletter is to remain neutral on all political issues. We don't take sides.

About Us

A new issue of the Wireless Messaging Newsletter is posted on the web each week. A notification goes out by e-mail to subscribers on most Fridays around noon central US time. The notification message has a link to the actual newsletter on the web. That way it doesn’t fill up your incoming e-mail account.

There is no charge for subscription and there are no membership restrictions. Readers are a very select group of wireless industry professionals, and include the senior managers of many of the world’s major Paging and Wireless Messaging companies. There is an even mix of operations managers, marketing people, and engineers — so I try to include items of interest to all three groups. It’s all about staying up-to-date with business trends and technology.

I regularly get readers’ comments, so this newsletter has become a community forum for the Paging, and Wireless Messaging communities. You are welcome to contribute your ideas and opinions. Unless otherwise requested, all correspondence addressed to me is subject to publication in the newsletter and on my web site. I am very careful to protect the anonymity of those who request it.


Let's get together and share ideas. Our competitors are not other paging companies, they are other technologies.

I spend the whole week searching the INTERNET for news that I think may be of interest to you — so you won’t have to. This newsletter is an aggregator — a service that aggregates news from other news sources. You can help our community by sharing any interesting news that you find.

We need your help. This is probably the only weekly news source about paging and wireless messaging.

animated left arrow

Editorial Policy

Editorial Opinion pieces present only the opinions of the author. They do not necessarily reflect the views of any of advertisers or supporters. This newsletter is independent of any trade association. I don't intend to hurt anyone's feelings, but I do freely express my own opinions.

Prism-IPX Systems is growing and they are looking for more good software developers with communications experience. Additional information is available on their web site. Click here .

Subscribe Here


* required field

If you would like to subscribe to the newsletter just fill in the blanks in the form above, and then click on the “Subscribe” bar.

Advertiser Index

Easy Solutions  (Vaughan Bowden)
IWA Technical Services, Inc.  (Ira Wiesenfeld)
Leavitt Communications  (Phil Leavitt)
Prism Paging  (Jim Nelson & John Bishop)
Product Support Services  (PSSI, Robert Cook, et al )
Paging & Wireless Network Planners LLC  (Ron Mercer)
Wex International Limited

Hong Kong


W8001 (4 Line/8 Line IP67 Alphanumeric Pager)

W8008 Thinnest IP67 Rated Alphanumeric Pager 4 Line/8 Line, OLED Display

W2028 (2 Line/4 Line Alphanumeric Pager)

For Trade inquiries contact:
Eric Dilip Kumar

  • Available in VHF, UHF & 900 MHz Full Range Frequency Bands
  • We are OEM for Major Brand names in USA and Europe
  • We also Design and Manufacture POCSAG Decoder Boards
  • We can Design and Manufacture to customer specifications
  • Factory located in Shenzhen, China
  • Pagers have FCC, RoHs, C-Tick, CE-EMC, IC Approvals

Visit our websites for more details

For ESPAÑOL, PORTUGUÊS AND DEUTSCH versions, please go to:


Texas Transportation Solutions Provider Paradigm Traffic Systems Partners with Zetron for Mission Critical Communications Tech

Redmond, Wash., November 28, 2018 – Zetron, a global leader in integrated mission critical communications technology, today announced that Paradigm Traffic Systems, a leader in traffic and intelligent transportation systems (ITS) for 25 years based in Arlington, TX (USA), has been authorized as a Zetron Collective Brilliance Program Partner. Paradigm will now market and service Zetron’s full portfolio of integrated mission critical communications solutions throughout the state of Texas.

Paradigm Traffic Systems maintains an extensive and knowledgeable sales and technical team that supports its portfolio of ITS and traffic signal systems from office locations in Arlington and Houston. 2019 will mark Paradigm’s 25th year in business, in which time the company has accumulated a strong customer base of state, municipal, and local government customer agencies.

“Unrivaled quality, reliability, and support are all tenets of Zetron’s rapid growth in transportation solutions,” said Bill Cusack, Director Business Development at Zetron. “Paradigm’s proven relentless focus on delivering an unparalleled customer experience in this important sector make the company an exceptionally well-aligned partner to represent Zetron solutions all across the great state of Texas.”

Paradigm’s expansive base of government customers for traffic and transportation systems are often the same agencies responsible for funding and managing public safety answering points (PSAPs) for emergency response operations, as well as communications and command centers for public and private transportation authorities.

“A core value proposition of our business has always been an exceptionally well-trained technical staff to assist our customers in every aspect of their critical infield product applications,” said Jerry Priester, President of Paradigm Traffic Systems. “Mission critical communications systems enables us to offer a more comprehensive solution suite to the same public safety and transportation agencies we’ve served for 25 years.”

For more information about the Zetron Collective Brilliance partner program for transportation organizations, please contact .

About Zetron, Inc.
Zetron has been designing and manufacturing integrated mission-critical communications systems since 1980. Its offerings include NG9-1-1 call-taking, CAD, mapping, dispatch, voice logging, fire station alerting, and location service systems. They are expandable, interoperable, and able to support geo-diverse operations. What’s more, Zetron backs its products with technical support, training, and project management services known for their skill and responsiveness. With offices in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, and a global network of partners, resellers, and system integrators, Zetron has installed thousands of systems and tens of thousands of console positions worldwide. Zetron is a wholly owned subsidiary of JVCKENWOOD Corporation. For more information, visit:

About Paradigm Traffic Systems
Established in 1994, Paradigm Traffic Systems maintains a large team of expert technicians and service professionals in Texas, with decades of traffic service experience. Our team possesses the knowledge and manpower to provide unrivaled hands-on customer service and ongoing support for small to large projects. Paradigm specializes in traffic signal systems sales, service and installation, freeway traffic management, integrated communications systems, and offers a full line of intelligent transportation system products and parts. For more information on Paradigm Traffic Systems, visit: .


Media Contact:

Jim Shulkin
Director, Communications & Marketing
(t) 425.820.6363 x 582




Paging Transmitters 150/900 MHz

The RFI High Performance Paging Transmitter is designed for use in campus, city, state and country-wide paging systems. Designed for use where reliable simulcast systems where RF signal overlap coverage is critical.

  • Commercial Paging systems.
  • Healthcare Paging systems.
  • Public Safety Emergency Services Paging systems.
  • Demand Response Energy Grid Management.

Built-in custom interface for Prism-IPX ipBSC Base Controller for remote control, management and alarm reporting.

  • Use as a stand-alone unit or in wide area network.
  • Mix with other transmitter brands in an existing paging network.
  • Adjustable from 20-250 watts.
  • 110/240 VAC or 48VDC.
  • Absolute Delay Correction.
  • Remote Diagnostics.
  • Configurable alarm thresholds.
  • Integrated Isolator.
  • Superb Reliability.
  • Improved amplifier efficiency.
  • Most reliable high-powered paging transmitter available.

Prism-IPX Systems LLC.

11175 Cicero Dr., Alpharetta, GA 30022
Ph: 678-242-5290 Email:

Back To Paging


Still The Most Reliable Protocol For Wireless Messaging!

Newsletter Advertising


If you are reading this, your potential customers are reading it as well. Please click here to find out about our advertising options.

Licensed Adobe Stock Image

Easy Solutions

easy solutions

Providing Expert Support and Service Contracts for all Glenayre Paging Systems.

The GL3000 is the most prolific paging system in the world and Easy Solutions gladly welcomes you to join us in providing reliable support to the paging industry for many more decades in the future.

Easy Solutions provides cost effective computer and wireless solutions at affordable prices. We can help in most any situation with your communications systems. We have many years of experience and a vast network of resources to support the industry, your system and an ever changing completive landscape.

  • We treat our customers like family. We don’t just fix problems . . . We recommend and implement better cost-effective solutions.
  • We are not just another vendor . . . We are a part of your team. All the advantages of high priced full-time employment without the cost.
  • We are not in the Technical Services business . . . We are in the Customer Satisfaction business.

Experts in Paging Infrastructure

  • Glenayre, Motorola, Unipage, etc.
  • Excellent Service Contracts
  • Full Service—Beyond Factory Support
  • Making systems More Reliable and MORE PROFITABLE for over 30 years.

Please see our web site for exciting solutions designed specifically for the Wireless Industry. We also maintain a diagnostic lab and provide important repair and replacement parts services for Motorola and Glenayre equipment. Call or  e-mail  us for more information.

Easy Solutions
3220 San Simeon Way
Plano, Texas 75023

Vaughan Bowden
Telephone: 972-898-1119
Telephone: 214 785-8255

Easy Solutions


“Is Paging Going Away?” by Jim Nelson

  • Click here for English.
  • Click here for German. (Berlin Revision: November 8, 2016)
  • Click here for French.

Here is an English PDF edit of this paper formatted with page breaks and suitable for printing.

Volunteers needed for translations into other languages.


I would like to recommend Easy Solutions for Support of all Glenayre Paging Equipment. This Texas company is owned and operated by Vaughan Bowden. I have known Vaughan for over 35 years. Without going into a long list of his experience and qualifications, let me just say that he was the V.P. of Engineering at PageNet which was—at that time—the largest paging company in the world. So Vaughan knows Paging.

GTES is no longer offering support contracts. GTES was the original group from Vancouver that was setup to offer support to customers that wanted to continue with the legacy Glenayre support. Many U.S. customers chose not to use this service because of the price and the original requirement to upgrade to version 8.0 software (which required expensive hardware upgrades, etc.). Most contracts ended as of February 2018.

If you are at all concerned about future support of Glenayre products, especially the “king of the hill” the GL3000 paging control terminal, I encourage you to talk to Vaughan about a service contract and please tell him about my recommendation.


Board of Advisors

The Wireless Messaging News
Board of Advisors

Frank McNeill
Founder & CEO
Communications Specialists
Jim Nelson
President & CEO
Prism Systems International
Kevin D. McFarland, MSCIS
Sr. Application Systems Analyst
Medical Center
Paul Lauttamus, President
Lauttamus Communications & Security
R.H. (Ron) Mercer
Wireless Consultant
Barry Kanne
Paging Industry Veteran
Ira Wiesenfeld, P.E.
Consulting Engineer
Allan Angus
Consulting Engineer

The Board of Advisor members are people with whom I have developed a special rapport, and have met personally. They are not obligated to support the newsletter in any way, except with advice, and maybe an occasional letter to the editor.


Can You Help The Newsletter?

animated left arrow

You can help support The Wireless Messaging News by clicking on the PayPal Donate button above. It is not necessary to be a member of PayPal to use this service.

Reader Support

Newspapers generally cost 75¢ $1.50 a copy and they hardly ever mention paging or wireless messaging, unless in a negative way. If you receive some benefit from this publication maybe you would like to help support it financially?

A donation of $50.00 would certainly help cover a one-year period. If you are wiling and able, please click on the PayPal Donate button above.

Voluntary Newsletter Supporters By Donation

Kansas City


Premium Newsletter Supporter

gcs logo

Premium Newsletter Supporter

Canyon Ridge Communications

canyon ridge

Premium Newsletter Supporter

ProPage Inc.


Newsletter Supporter

Metropolitan Communications


Newsletter Supporter

e*Message Wireless Information Services Europe

Newsletter Supporter

Lekkerkerk, Netherlands

Newsletter Supporter




Donate to have your company's logo added.

Incyte Capital Holdings LLC
Dallas, Texas

Premium Newsletter Supporter

Le Réseau Mobilité Plus
Montreal, Quebec


Newsletter Supporter

Communication Specialists

communication specialists

Newsletter Supporter

Cook Paging

cook paging

Premium Newsletter Supporter



Premium Newsletter Supporter

Citipage Ltd.
Edmonton, Alberta


Newsletter Supporter

Click on the image above for more info about advertising here.

blue line

Prism-IPX Systems

prism-ipx systems
Critical Messaging that works
Secure . . . Dependable . . .
and Encrypted

Who We Are

Prism-IPX is a leader in providing reliable communications systems using modern designs to meet today’s demands for critical message alerting and delivery. Prism-IPX designs versatile and robust Critical Message Management systems using paging and other wireless technologies for high performance and dependable communications.

What We Make

Prism-IPX Systems products include full-featured radio paging systems with VoIP input, IP based transmitter control systems and paging message encryption. Other options include e-mail messaging, remote switch controllers, Off-The-Air paging message decoders and logging systems.

Contact Us   left arrow

Product Support Services, Inc.

blue line

Repair and Refurbishment Services

pssi logo

PSSI Repair Pricing
Repair Turn-Around Time 5-10 Business Days
1.1 Messaging Device - Repair Fees (parts additional change, 90-day warranty)
  Model Name PSSI Model Code Model Type Pricing (USD$)
  AE-Advisor Elite AE-Advisor Elite Alphanumeric $14.25
  AG-Advisor Gold AG-Advisor Gold Alphanumeric $13.12
  ALPE-UniElite (All New Parts) ALPE-UniElite Alphanumeric $34.83
  ALPE-UniElite (Used Parts) ALPE-UniElite Alphanumeric $14.94
  ALPG-Alpha Gold ALPG-Alpha Gold Alphanumeric $14.51
  Apollo Apollo Numeric $13.37
  Bravo 850 B8-BR850 Numeric $17.02
  BF-Bravo FLX BF-Bravo FLX Numeric $11.44
  T900 T9-T900 2Way $18.56
  BP-Bravo Plus BP-Bravo Plus Numeric $11.44
  BR-Bravo LX BR-Bravo LX Numeric $11.44
  GS-Coaster Coaster Numeric $26.97
  M90-UNI Messenger M90-UNI Messenger 2Way $18.56
  NP88-UNI-NP88 NP88-UNI-NP88 Numeric $9.68
  Pronto PL-Pronto LX Numeric $9.68
  Unication Elegant EL-Elegant Numeric $14.51
  RA-Ranger RA-Ranger Numeric $12.02
  ST800 ST800 Numeric $12.02
  ST800-P ST800-P Numeric $12.02
  T3-Titan Sun Telecom T3-Titan Sun Telecom Alphanumeric $13.37
  Z4-Z400 Sun Telecom Z4-Z400 Sun Telecom Alphanumeric $12.06
1.2 Messaging Device - Miscellaneous Service Fees
  Damaged Beyond Repair Inspection Fee $1.15
  Frequency Change - Synthesized Models $3.45
  Frequency Change - Non-Synthesized Models (parts not included) $4.03
1.3 Infrastructure Network Equip. - Repair Fees (parts additional charge, 6-mth. warranty)
  Model Name PSSI Model Code  
  Motorola Amplifier MO-AMP $581.20
  Motorola SCM/Exciter MO-SCM-EXC $561.25
  Motorola External NIU MO-NIU-EXT $511.92
  Glenayre Tx Controller GL-C2000 $128.34
  Glenayre Exciter Narrow Band GL-EXC-NB $128.34
  Glenayre Exciter Wide Band GL-EXC-WB $128.34
  Glenayre </=300W Amplifier GL-T8500 $303.60
  Glenayre </=300W Amplifier GL-T8600 $303.60
1.4 Infrastructure Network Equipment - Miscellaneous Service Fees
  Inventory Receiving Processing Fee $18.40
  Pick, Pack, and Order Fulfillment Fee $29.90
  Damaged Beyond Repair Inspection Fee $80.50

Product Support Services, Inc.
511 South Royal Lane
Coppell, Texas 75019
817-527-6322 left arrow left arrow

blue line

Click on the image above for more info about advertising here.

INTERNET Protocol Terminal

The IPT accepts INTERNET or serial messaging using various protocols and can easily convert them to different protocols, or send them out as paging messages.

An ideal platform for hospitals, on-site paging applications, or converting legacy systems to modern protocols.

Input Protocols: Serial and IP
Output Protocols: Serial and IP
FLEX (optional PURC control)   POCSAG (optional PURC control)

Additional/Optional Features

  • Database of up to 5000 subscribers.
  • 4 serial ports on board.
  • Up to 8 phone lines (DID or POTS).
  • Can be configured for auto-fail-over to hot swap standby.
  • 1RU rack mount unit appliance—no moving parts.
  • Easily secure legacy system messages leaving site for HIPAA compliance.
  • Only purchase the protocols/options you need.
  • Add Paging Encryption for HIPAA compliance on site.

Prism-IPX Systems LLC.

11175 Cicero Dr., Alpharetta, GA 30022
Ph: 678-242-5290 Email:

blue line

Leavitt Communications

blue line


Specialists in sales and service of equipment from these leading manufacturers, as well as other two-way radio and paging products:

UNICATION bendix king

motorola blue Motorola SOLUTIONS

COM motorola red Motorola MOBILITY spacer
Philip C. Leavitt
Leavitt Communications
7508 N. Red Ledge Drive
Paradise Valley, AZ 85253
Web Site:
Mobile phone: 847-494-0000
Telephone: 847-955-0511
Fax: 270-447-1909
Skype ID: pcleavitt

blue line

Paging Data Receiver PDR-4

The PDR-4 is a multi-function paging data receiver that decodes paging messages and outputs them via the serial port, USB or Ethernet connectors.

Designed for use with Prism-IPX ECHO software Message Logging Software to receive messages and log the information for proof of transmission over the air, and if the data was error free.

  • Option—decode capcode list or all messages.
  • Large capcode capacity.
  • Serial, USB and Ethernet output.
  • POCSAG or FLEX page decoding, special SA protocols.
  • Receivers for paging bands in VHF, UHF, 900 MHz.
  • Message activated Alarm Output.
  • 8 programmable relay outputs.
  • Send notifications of a system problem.
  • Synthesized Receiver Tuning.
  • Selectivity better than 60 dB.
  • Frequencies 148-174, 450-470, 929-932 MHz.
  • Image Rejection better than 55 dB.
  • Spurious Rejection better than 55 dB.
  • Channel Spacing 12.5 or 25 kHz.
  • Power 5VDC.
  • Receiving Sensitivity 5µV at 1200 bps.

Prism-IPX Systems LLC.

11175 Cicero Dr., Alpharetta, GA 30022
Ph: 678-242-5290 Email:

Wireless Network Planners

Wireless Network Planners
Wireless Specialists

R.H. (Ron) Mercer
217 First Street
East Northport, NY 11731

ron mercer
Telephone: 631-786-9359 left arrow left arrow

Wireless Network Planners

blue line

Consulting Alliance

Brad Dye, Ron Mercer, Allan Angus, Vic Jackson, and Ira Wiesenfeld are friends and colleagues who work both together and independently, on wireline and wireless communications projects.

Click here left arrow for a summary of their qualifications and experience. Each one has unique abilities. We would be happy to help you with a project, and maybe save you some time and money.

Note: We do not like Patent Trolls, i.e. “a person or company who enforces patent rights against accused infringers in an attempt to collect licensing fees, but does not manufacture products or supply services based upon the patents in question.” We have helped some prominent law firms defend their clients against this annoyance, and would be happy to do some more of this same kind of work.

Some people use the title “consultant” when they don't have a real job. We actually do consulting work, and help others based on our many years of experience.

“If you would know the road ahead, ask someone who has traveled it.”
— Chinese Proverb

Consulting Alliance

Remote AB Switches

ABX-1 switches are often used at remote transmitter sites to convert from old, outdated and unsupported controllers to the new modern Prism-IPX ipBSC base station controllers. Remotely switch to new controllers with GUI commands.


ABX-3 switches are widely used for enabling or disabling remote equipment and switching I/O connections between redundant messaging systems.


Common Features:

  • RJ45 for A, B and Common connectors.
  • Manual push button or use Prism IP commands to switch one or more relays.
  • Single or Dual Port Control card for IP or Serial connection.
  • Form C relay—control local connection.
  • Power Loss Indicator.
  • Rear Panel Connector for controlling the switch externally.
  • Power Source: 5VDC for ABX-1; 12VDC for ABX-3.

Prism-IPX Systems LLC.

11175 Cicero Dr., Alpharetta, GA 30022
Ph: 678-242-5290 Email:

blue line

Did You Know Windows 10 Has a Green Screen of Death?

CHRIS HOFFMAN @chrisbhoffman NOVEMBER 30, 2018, 9:00AM

Everyone’s heard about the blue screen of death (BSOD) that appears when your Windows PC crashes. But did you know Windows 10 has a green screen of death, too?

The green screen of death only appears when you’re running an Insider Preview version of Windows 10. It’s the same as the blue screen of death, and it will show the same error messages.

In other words, anything that triggers a blue screen of death on a normal version of Windows 10 will trigger a green screen of death on an Insider Preview version of Windows 10. The only difference is this screen says you’re using a “Windows Insider Build” and it has a green background instead of a blue one.

The green color highlights that the error was generated by unstable development builds of Windows 10. These Insider builds often have crashes and bugs you wouldn’t experience on a normal version of Windows 10. Microsoft sometimes warns of “green screen” errors Windows Insiders may encounter while running this development software.

If you see a green screen of death (GSOD) on your PC, that’s a sign you’re using an Insider Preview build of Windows 10. The problem could just be a bug in the unstable build, although it could also be a deeper problem with your PC’s hardware or drivers. You won’t know for sure until you go back to a stable version of Windows 10.

Microsoft made this change back in the Creators Update, which was released in April 2017. Before that, Insider builds of Windows 10 used standard blue screens of death.

If you’re using an Insider Preview build of Windows 10 and want to see it for yourself, this registry hack for manually triggering a blue screen still works—and it’ll trigger a green screen with the “MANUALLY INITIATED CRASH” stop code.


How-To Geek


blue line

Leavitt Communications

blue line

We can supply alphanumeric display, numeric display, and voice pagers.

We also offer NEW and refurbished Alphamate 250s, refurbished Alphamate IIs, the original Alphamate refurbished, and new and refurbished pagers, pager repairs, pager parts, and accessories. We are FULL SERVICE in Paging! Outstanding service is our goal.

E-mail Phil Leavitt ( ) for pricing and delivery information, or for a list of other available paging and two-way related equipment.

Phil Leavitt

7508 N. Red Ledge Drive
Paradise Valley, AZ 85253

blue line

Friday, November 30, 2018

Volume 6 | Issue 233

Weak Signals Article is Weak On Detail

In response to Wednesday’s article entitled " Report Says Weak Cell Signals Emit More RF Exposure Than Strong Ones ," Nash Higgins, a Vice President at Proteus Services offers additional insight into the article’s findings. -ed

Dear Jim,
I’d like to offer some additional insight on this article [" Report Says Weak Cell Signals Emit More RF Exposure Than Strong Ones" 11/28/18 ]. While it does not give any false information, there’s an important detail missing regarding the source of the RF exposure mobile users will be subjected to if they’re in low RF coverage. The RF coverage displayed on the mobile device is based on the RF signals emanating from a base station. That level of RF exposure is much lower than the RF exposure users are subjected to by their mobile device, especially if it’s held up to their ear, as in when conducting a voice call. The missing information is that in low coverage, a mobile device has to transmit much higher power to communicate with the base station.

The reason the base station coverage is low can be due to distance, or terrain (hills and foliage) or a building structure. But the important detail is those same RF path challenges that cause the base station’s signal to be low at the mobile device also cause the mobile device to have to transmit much more RF power to communicate with the base station. And that mobile’s RF is what exposes users to more RF in low signal areas. The advice given in the article about using a hands-free device such as an ear piece or speaker phone is golden, as that extra distance between the user and the mobile device greatly diminishes the RF exposure level the user sees.

As the article is written, an uninformed user may think that weaker RF signals cause more RF exposure to people, which they definitely do not. It’s the effect that weak signals have on the mobile device, making it transmit more RF, that causes the effect your article highlights. There’s already way too much bad information, and still some unknowns on this subject already, so I’m sensitive to situations where the public may be more confused.

Keep up the good work.

Nash Higgins
Vice President – Business Development
Proteus Services

Source: Inside Towers newsletter Courtesy of the editor of Inside Towers.

blue line

BloostonLaw Newsletter

blue line

Selected portions [sometimes more — sometimes less] of the BloostonLaw Telecom Update and/or the BloostonLaw Private Users Update — newsletters from the Law Offices of Blooston, Mordkofsky, Dickens, Duffy & Prendergast, LLP — are reproduced in this section of The Wireless Messaging News with kind permission from the firm. The firm's contact information is included at the end of this section of the newsletter.

 BloostonLaw Telecom Update Vol. 21, No. 50 November 28, 2018 

USAC Reminds Carriers Minimum Service Standards for Lifeline Increase on Dec 1

On November 28, the Universal Service Administrative Company issued a notice reminding carriers that effective December 1, the updated minimum service standards for services Lifeline support is applied to are:

  • 2 GB/month of 3G mobile technology for mobile data;
  • 1,000 minutes per month for mobile voice; and
  • 18/2 Mbps at 1000 GB of usage per month for fixed broadband.

In cases where a Lifeline-supported service will no longer meet the standard in December, carriers were required by USAC to notify affected customers at least one month in advance in writing, separate from their bill. Carriers with questions about the increased minimum service standards or the notice requirement should contact the firm for more information.

BloostonLaw Contacts: Mary Sisak and Sal Taillefer.


FCC Eliminates Form 655 HAC Reporting, Enhances HAC Web Site and Record-keeping Requirements

In an action that was supported by consumer groups representing the hearing loss community, wireless service providers and wireless handset manufacturers, the FCC last week adopted a Report and Order eliminating the annual Form 655 HAC report and adopted in its place an annual compliance certification along with enhanced web site disclosure and record-keeping requirements necessary to demonstrate compliance with the Commission’s wireless hearing aid compatibility rules.

The new rules and annual compliance certification will not go into effect until sometime early next year following Federal Register publication of a notice indicating that OMB has approved the information collection requirements. In the meantime, the Commission has waived the requirement to file an annual HAC Report for the 2018 calendar year that would otherwise be due January 15, 2019.

Elimination of the annual HAC report is a change that the Blooston Law Firm has long sought for small carriers and should be welcomed by our firm’s clients, since they should spend less time and resources on annual compliance reporting. At the same time, however, the enhanced web site and record-keeping requirements will require even closer attention on a year-round basis to ensure regulatory compliance and avoid the possibility of FCC enforcement action. We are in the process of updating our firm’s HAC compliance and record-keeping worksheet in response to the new rules, and will make it available to affected clients in the new year along with a more detailed analysis of the new HAC rules.

With respect to companies that ceased offering handsets or offering mobile wireless services during 2018, we are confirming with the Commission’s staff whether and the extent to which these companies have an obligation to submit a partial-year compliance certification and/or to retain relevant records.

New Annual HAC Compliance Certification: The new annual certification requirement applies to all service providers including de minimis service providers. They will be required to file a certification by January 15 of each calendar year using the existing electronic interface for the FCC Form 655. BloostonLaw can assist with the preparation and filing of the required Certification.

Along with the certification statement, service providers will be required to calculate and report the percentage of hearing aid-compatible wireless handsets they made available that year across all air interfaces. The Commission will rely on web site postings of current handsets and new document retention requirements (discussed below) to monitor carrier compliance with the deployment benchmarks by air interface.

As part of the certification (which will be submitted electronically), the service provider must submit the name of the signing executive, his or her contact information, the web site address (if applicable) of pages(s) containing hearing aid compatibility information required by Section 20.19(h), and the FCC FRN and the name of the company(ies) covered by the certification. Accuracy of the certification and ongoing accuracy of web site disclosures (including handset lists) will be very important because the FCC intends to rely on the compliance statement in the event of any enforcement action.

Enhanced Web Site Information: Updated rules require service providers to post on their web sites the most critical information currently submitted on FCC Form 655. In addition, all service providers that operate publicly accessible web sites (other than de minimis service providers, which remain exempt from web site requirements) will now be required to post to their web sites the following additional information:

A list of all non-hearing aid-compatible handset models currently offered, including the level of functionality of those models;Among other pieces of data, the marketing model name/number(s) and FCC ID number of each hearing aid-compatible and non-hearing aid-compatible handset model currently offered;

A link to a third-party web site as designated by the Commission or Wireless Telecommunications Bureau, with information regarding hearing aid-compatible and non-hearing aid-compatible devices OR, alternatively, a clearly marked list of hearing aid-compatible devices that have been offered in the past 24 months but are no longer offered by that provider. For purposes of initial implementation, the Commission designates the Global Accessibility Reporting Initiative (GARI) web site (at ) as the third party web site referred to in this portion of the rule;

A link to the current FCC web page containing information about the wireless hearing aid compatibility rules and service providers’ obligations; and A “date stamp” on any web site page containing the above referenced information that indicates when the page was last updated.

Enhanced Record-keeping and Data Retention Policy: Once the new record retention rules go into effect, service providers will be required to retain internal records from January 2018 onward for all discontinued handset models, to be made available upon Commission request:

  1. handset model information, including the month year/each hearing aid-compatible and non-hearing aid-compatible handset model was first offered; and
  2. the month/year each hearing aid-compatible handset model and non-hearing aid-compatible handset was last offered for all discontinued handset models until a period of 24 months has passed from that date.

Retaining this “trailing list” of all handsets offered over the past 24 months will allow the Commission to monitor whether service providers have met and continue meet numerical and percentage-based handset deployment obligations. The obligation to post a link to the GARI web site, or alternatively, post a clearly marked list of hearing aid-compatible devices that have been offered in the past 24 months is designed to permit consumers to locate information about a handset model they may have recently purchased that is no longer being offered.


As noted above, we are in the process of determining whether and the extent to which service providers that ceased offering mobile wireless services during the 2018 calendar year will need to submit a partial-year certification of compliance and will reach out to affected clients in the coming weeks. We are also updating our firm’s HAC compliance and record-keeping worksheet in response to the new rules and will make it available to affected clients in the new year along with a more detailed analysis of the new HAC rules, upon request.

BloostonLaw Contact: Cary Mitchell

FCC Announces Tentative Agenda for December Open Meeting

On November 21, the FCC issued a Public Notice announcing the tentative agenda for its upcoming Open Meeting, which is currently scheduled for December 12. The FCC publicly releases the draft text of each item expected to be considered at this Open Commission Meeting with the exception of items involving specific, enforcement-related matters. One-page cover sheets are included in the public drafts to help summarize each item. Links to these materials are embedded in the text below.

At the meeting, the FCC will consider:

  • Spectrum Frontiers Fourth Report and Order – a Report and Order that would adopt service rule changes for the Upper 37 GHz (37.6-38.6 GHz), 39 GHz (38.6-40 GHz), and 47 GHz (47.2-48.2 GHz) bands, and would provide for an incentive auction mechanism that would offer contiguous blocks of spectrum in the Upper 37 GHz and 39 GHz bands and additional spectrum in the 47 GHz band. (GN Docket No. 14-177)
  • Incentive-Based Universal Service Support – a Report and Order, Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, and Order on Reconsideration . The Report and Order would offer additional funding to carriers that currently receive model-based universal service support in exchange for deploying broadband at increased speeds, provide an opportunity for legacy carriers to transition to model-based support, and authorize additional support for carriers remaining on the legacy rate-of-return support mechanism in exchange for targeting higher broadband speeds. The FNPRM would seek comment on implementing an auction mechanism for support in legacy areas that are overlapped or almost entirely overlapped by an unsubsidized competitor, and on addressing budgetary impacts as carriers transition to broadband-only lines. The Order on Reconsideration would deny three petitions for reconsideration. (WC Docket Nos. 10-90, 14-58, 07-135, 01-92)
  • Reassigned Numbers Database – a Second Report and Order that would create a comprehensive database to enable callers to verify whether a telephone number has been permanently disconnected, and is therefore eligible for reassignment, before calling that number, thereby helping to protect consumers with reassigned numbers from receiving unwanted robocalls. (CG Docket No. 17-59)
  • Text Messaging Classification/Robotexts – a Declaratory Ruling that would classify two forms of wireless messaging, Short Message Service (SMS) and Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS), as information services under the Communications Act, and help prevent consumers from receiving spam robotexts. (WT Docket No. 08-7)
  • 2018 Quadrennial Regulatory Review – a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that would initiate the 2018 Quadrennial Review of certain broadcast ownership rules. (MB Docket No. 18-349)
  • Elimination of Broadcast Station License Posting Requirement – a Report and Order that would eliminate certain rules which require local posting and maintenance of broadcast licenses and related information in specific locations. (MB Docket Nos. 18-121, 17-105)
  • Communications Marketplace Report – a Report that would consolidate several previously separate FCC reports into a single report on the state of the broader communications market in the United States. It would assess the state of all forms of competition in the communications marketplace and the state of deployment of communications capabilities, describe the actions taken by the FCC in the previous two years to address challenges and opportunities in the communications marketplace, and discuss the FCC’s agenda for continuing to address those challenges and opportunities over the next two years. (GN Docket No 18-231; WT Docket No. 18-203; MB Docket Nos. 17-214, 18-227; IB Docket No. 18-251)

Open Meetings are streamed live at and can be followed on social media with #OpenMtgFCC.

BloostonLaw Contacts: Ben Dickens, Gerry Duffy, and John Prendergast.

PRA Comment Sought on Intermediate Provider Registry

On November 27, the FCC published in the Federal Register a Public Notice seeking Paperwork Reduction Act comments on the information collections associated with the intermediate provider registration requirement adopted in September. PRA comments are due December 27. As a reminder, intermediate providers will be required to register thirty days after Office of Management and Budget approval is received for these information collections. As we reported in a previous edition of the BloostonLaw Telecom Update, the FCC’s Third Report and Order in WC Docket No. 13-39 adopted rules to establish a registry for intermediate providers and require intermediate providers to register with the FCC before offering to transmit covered voice communications, among others.

Carriers interested in filing PRA comments should contact the firm for assistance. Unlike traditional FCC comments, PRA comments must focus on: (i) whether the proposed collection of information is necessary for the proper performance of the functions of the FCC, including whether the information will have practical utility; (ii) the accuracy of the FCC’s burden estimate; (iii) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information collected; (iv) ways to minimize the burden of the collection of information on the respondents, including the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology; and (v) ways to further reduce the information burden for small business concerns with fewer than 25 employees. BloostonLaw routinely prepares PRA comments and is available for assistance.

BloostonLaw Contacts: Ben Dickens, Gerry Duffy, Mary Sisak, and Sal Taillefer.

Comment Sought on Extension of 3650-3700 MHz Transition Deadline

On November 27, the FCC issued a Public Notice seeks comment on the request of the Wireless Internet Service Providers Association (WISPA) and Utilities Technology Council (UTC) for additional time for grandfathered wireless broadband licensees operating in the 3650-3700 MHz band to complete the transition of their operations to the Part 96 Citizens Broadband Radio Service rules. Comments are due December 12, and reply comments are due December 24.

The transition periods for 3650-3700 MHz band licensees end between April 17, 2020 and January 8, 2023, depending on the grant and expiration dates of each individual license. WISPA and UTC ask that the transition window for all grandfathered 3650-3700 MHz band licensees be extended through January 8, 2023.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast and Cary Mitchell.

FCC Waives 90-day Aging Rule for Reassigning Numbers

On November 23, the FCC issued an Order waiving its “aging” rule for reassigned numbers for all companies that provide service in areas of California covered by the Major Disaster Declaration until August 22, 2019. The aging rule, codified in section 52.15(f)(ii) of the FCC’s rules, says that service providers may only age telephone numbers that have been disconnected for up to 90 days before assigning them to other customers. This allows service providers in the affected areas, upon customers’ request, to disconnect temporarily customers’ telephone service to avoid billing issues, and then reinstate the customers’ same numbers when service is reconnected.

According to the Order, this waiver of the aging rule will also apply to residential customers in other areas subject to future Major Disaster or Emergency Declarations signed by the President, due to wildfires during the 2018-19 wildfire season. Any future waivers will expire 270 days from the date the President declares a state of emergency or major disaster for affected areas.

The FCC also “encouraged” service providers to port telephone numbers geographically outside a rate center to the extent it is technically feasible, and to waive call forwarding, message center, and voice-mail service charges for affected customers, to the extent lawfully permitted, until the customers’ service is restored.

BloostonLaw Contacts: Ben Dickens, Gerry Duffy, and Mary Sisak.

Law & Regulation

Comment Deadlines Established, Immediately Extended for Cable Rate Regulation Revision FNPRM

On November 27, the FCC published in the Federal Register its Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in which it seeks comment on whether and how to replace and simplify the cable rate-regulation framework in Part 76 of the rules. On the same day, however, the FCC issued a Public Notice extending the comment and reply comment deadlines for the FNPRM. Accordingly, comments are due January 10, and reply comments are due February 11.

In the FNPRM, the FCC first seeks comment on whether it should consider replacing the existing complex rate regulation framework with a new and simple methodology. Second, and in the alternative, the FCC seeks comment on, among other issues, whether to greatly streamline the existing initial rate- setting methodology by eliminating numerous rate forms that the FCC believes are no longer necessary or useful. According to the FCC, this would substantially reduce the amount of equipment subject to rate regulation, and end rate regulation entirely for small cable systems owned by small operators.

The FCC elected to extend the comment and reply comment deadlines because e original comment deadline fell between two federal holidays.

BloostonLaw Contacts: Gerry Duffy.

FCC Extends Deadline on 3.7-4.2 GHz Band NPRM Reply Comments

On November 21, the FCC issued an Order extending the deadline to file reply comments on its Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in GN Docket No. 18-122, in which the FCC proposed to add a mobile, except aeronautical mobile, allocation to the 3.7 – 4.2 GHz band. Reply comments are now due December 11.

The NPRM original set dates for comments and reply comments as October 29 and November 27, 2018, respectively. On November 19, the Dynamic Spectrum Alliance, the American Cable Association, Competitive Carriers Association, the Public Interest Spectrum Coalition and the Wireless Internet Service Providers Association sought an extension of time to submit reply comments. Among other things, these petitioners argued that an additional two weeks would allow commenters to better prepare more thorough, fact-based responses, and noted that that the original 30-day reply period encompasses the Thanksgiving holiday and that comments were due shortly after the holiday.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast and Cary Mitchell.


T-Mobile to Deploy Nationwide 5G Network Using 600 MHz Spectrum

T-Mobile is reporting that it has completed “the world’s first 5G data transmission on low-band spectrum (600 MHz) on a live commercial network” in Spokane, Washington. The company says that its tests prove that low-band airwaves will provide 5G coverage across hundreds of square miles from a single tower, in contrast to “millimeter wave (mmWave) sites that cover less than a square mile.” T-Mobile is promoting this technical difference as “5G for everyone, not just small clusters in parts of select cities.”

According to industry analyst Telecompetitor, 5G isn’t just about data speeds. Standards for 5G provide for substantially lower latency in comparison with existing cellular networks — and lower latency should be achievable in any 5G spectrum band. With respect to 5G network speed, T-Mobile and Sprint have said that if they are allowed to merge they would be able to achieve average mobile 5G speeds of 450 Mbps nationwide, and 100 Mbps to 90% of Americans using Sprint’s 2.5 GHz BRS and EBS holdings.

Not all 5G services will involve high bandwidth deployments needed for immersive VR-type experiences. Low latency coupled with low band spectrum will enable instant feedback from large sensor networks, and enable other capabilities that don’t require high data throughput.

While large carriers may be focusing their initial 5G network deployments and marketing efforts on differing spectrum bands, it is likely that all will deploy 5G using multiple spectrum bands and have similar 5G networks at the end of the day. Our clients will have opportunities to deploy 5G networks and provide 5G services using a variety of different licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands.

FCC Authorizes Satellite Service Providers

At its November Open Meeting, the FCC approved the requests of four companies—Space Exploration Holdings, LLC (SpaceX), Kepler Communications, Inc. (Kepler), Telesat Canada (Telesat), and LeoSat MA, Inc. (LeoSat)—seeking to roll out new and expanded services using proposed non-geostationary satellite orbit (NGSO) satellites.

In a Memorandum Opinion, Order and Authorization, the FCC granted SpaceX’s application with certain conditions, authorizing SpaceX to construct, deploy, and operate a new very-low-Earth orbit constellation of more than 7,000 satellites using V-band frequencies. The FCC also granted SpaceX’s request to add the 37.5-42.0 GHz, and 47.2-50.2 GHz frequency bands to its previously authorized NGSO constellation. The FCC’s action provides SpaceX with additional flexibility to provide both diverse geographic coverage and the capacity to support a wide range of broadband and communications services for residential, commercial, institutional, governmental, and professional users in the United States and globally.

In an Order and Declaratory Ruling, the FCC granted Kepler’s request for U.S. market access with certain conditions. The FCC’s action will allow Kepler to offer global connectivity for the Internet of Things, especially sensors and other intelligent devices as well as other FSS offerings using its proposed constellation of NGSO satellites in the 10.7-12.7 GHz and 14.0-14.5 GHz frequency bands. Kepler’s proposed NGSO system, consisting of 140 satellites, is licensed by Canada.

In an Order and Declaratory Ruling, the FCC granted Telesat’s request for U.S. market access with certain conditions in the 37.5-42.0 GHz, and 47.2- 50.2 GHz frequency bands. The FCC’s action enables Telesat to offer high-speed, low-latency communication services in the United States using its proposed constellation of NGSO satellites enhancing competition among existing and future FSS satellite systems. Telesat’s proposed NGSO system, consisting of 117 satellites, is licensed by Canada.

In an Order and Declaratory Ruling, the FCC also granted LeoSat’s request for U.S. market access with certain conditions in the 17.8-18.6 GHz, 18.8-19.4 GHz, 19.6-20.2 GHz, 27.5-29.1 GHz, and 29.5-30.0 GHz frequency bands, using its proposed constellation of NGSO satellites. Today’s action facilitates the provision of new and innovative satellite broadband services in the United States by LeoSat, including high-speed connectivity for enterprises and underserved communities. LeoSat’s proposed NGSO system consists of 78 satellites, which will operate under the ITU filings of France and a planned authorization from the Netherlands.

As of this writing, the FCC has granted 13 market access requests and satellite applications to nine companies for NGSO FSS constellations seeking authority to provide next-generation connectivity across the country in the past 18 months.


FEBRUARY 1: FCC FORM 499-Q, TELECOMMUNICATIONS REPORTING WORKSHEET. All telecommunications common carriers that expect to contribute more than $10,000 to federal Universal Service Fund (USF) support mechanisms must file this quarterly form. The FCC has modified this form in light of its decision to establish interim measures for USF contribution assessments. The form contains revenue information from the prior quarter plus projections for the next quarter. Form 499-Q relates only to USF contributions. It does not relate to the cost recovery mechanisms for the Telecommunications Relay Service (TRS) Fund, the North American Numbering Plan Administration (NANPA), and the shared costs of local number portability (LNP), which are covered in the annual Form 499-A that is due April 1.

BloostonLaw Contacts: Ben Dickens, Gerry Duffy, and Mary Sisak.

FEBRUARY 1: FCC FORM 502, NUMBER UTILIZATION AND FORECAST REPORT. Any wireless or wireline carrier (including paging companies) that have received number blocks—including 100, 1,000, or 10,000 number blocks--from the North American Numbering Plan Administrator (NANPA), a Pooling Administrator, or from another carrier, must file Form 502 by February 1. Carriers porting numbers for the purpose of transferring an established customer’s service to another service provider must also report, but the carrier receiving numbers through porting does not. Resold services should also be treated like ported numbers, meaning the carrier transferring the resold service to another carrier is required to report those numbers but the carrier receiving such numbers should not report them. Reporting carriers are required to include their FCC Registration Number (FRN). Reporting carriers file utilization and forecast reports semiannually on or before February 1 for the preceding six-month reporting period ending December 31, and on or before August 1 for the preceding six-month reporting period ending June 30.

BloostonLaw Contacts: Ben Dickens, Gerry Duffy, and Mary Sisak.

Calendar At-a-Glance

Nov. 28 – Reply comments are due on FM Translator Construction Permit Auction Procedures.
Nov. 28 – Comments are due on Adequate Replacement Test Interoperable Devices.
Nov. 28 – Comments are due on Phase I Testing for U-NII-4 (5.9 GHz) Devices

Dec. 3 – Reply comments are due on Termination of Dormant Proceedings.
Dec. 4 – Comments are due on Sprint/T-Mobile Merger Study.
Dec. 7 – Comments are due on Sprint Petition on IP Relay Rate-making.
Dec. 10 – Comments are due on Kari’s Law and RAY BAUM’s Act NPRM.
Dec. 10 – Comments are due on Implementation of National Suicide Hotline Improvement Act.
Dec. 11 – Reply comments are due on 3.7-4.2 GHz Band NPRM.
Dec. 12 – Comments are due on Citizens Broadband Radio Transition Deadline Waiver.
Dec. 13 – Reply comments are due on Adequate Replacement Test Interoperable Devices.
Dec. 13 – Reply comments are due on Phase I Testing for U-NII-4 (5.9 GHz) Devices
Dec. 14 – Reply comments are due on Cable Franchising FNPRM.
Dec. 24 – Reply comments are due on Sprint Petition on IP Relay Rate-making.
Dec. 24 – Reply comments are due on Citizens Broadband Radio Transition Deadline Waiver.
Dec. 27 – PRA comments are due on Intermediate Provider Registry.

Jan. 9 – Reply comments are due on Kari’s Law and RAY BAUM’s Act NPRM.
Jan. 10 – Comments are due on Cable Rate Regulation Revision FNPRM.
Jan. 31 – FCC Form 555 (Annual Lifeline ETC Certification Form) is due.

Feb. 1 – FCC Form 499-Q (Quarterly Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet) is due.
Feb. 1 – FCC Form 502 (Number Utilization and Forecast Report) is due.
Feb. 11 – Comments are due on Cable Rate Regulation Revision FNPRM.

 BloostonLaw Private Users Update Vol. 18, No. 11 November 2018 

Warning: Christmas Light Displays Tied to Music Broadcasts May Lead to Enforcement Action

As we have previously reported, over the past year, the FCC has taken a tough stance against pirate radio stations by going after not only the operator of the pirate station, but also the property owner where the station is located. As the Christmas season approaches, we note that there are a significant number of Christmas light displays that are tied to music and broadcast over FM radio frequencies so that the public can listen to the music on their car radio while driving through the display. While most of these operations use low power and are confined to the vicinity of the Christmas light display, the operation will be treated as unlicensed unless you have a specific authorization from the FCC, and could subject you to significant enforcement action, including fines and seizure of your radio equipment. Bah Humbug!

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast and Richard Rubino

FCC Changes to UHF and 800 MHz Rules to be Effective December 27

On November 27, the FCC published its Report and Order and Order in the Federal Register which updated its rules to provide new spectrum capacity and eliminate unnecessary restrictions in the private land mobile radio (PLMR) bands, while reducing administrative burdens on applicants and licensees. These new rules will be effective on December 27, which is 30 days after Federal Register publication. As we discussed last month, the order adopted several proposed changes to various Part 90 rules:

  • expanding PLMR use in portions of the 450-470 MHz band that were previously unavailable for licensing under Part 90 of the FCC’s Rules;
  • extending PLMR use to interstitial channels in the 800 MHz band;
  • assigning 800 MHz Expansion Band and Guard Band channels without limiting access for new licensees;
  • modifying rules related to railroad track-side signal boosters;
  • expanding the conditional temporary authority licensing scheme to specific bands above 470 MHz;
  • lifting the long-standing freeze on inter-category sharing of 800 MHz channels;
  • expanding potential uses for certain the central station UHF channels, and making The Monitoring Association (TMA) the exclusive coordinator of these frequencies;
  • making two editorial corrections and/or updates: restoring two airports (Kahului and Ke-Ahole) to the list of airports at or near which certain frequencies are reserved for commercial air transportation services, and correcting the coordinates for one airport (Boeing/King County International) that were listed incorrectly. In addition, the FCC corrected the entries in the I/B Pool table for frequencies from 153.0425 MHz to 153.4025 MHz for which the notation indicating that the concurrence of the Petroleum Coordinator is required was inadvertently deleted.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast and Richard Rubino.

Fishing Net Buoys May Not use Radio Frequencies Reserved for Marine Navigation Safety Communications

The FCC’s Enforcement Bureau issued an Enforcement Advisory reminding users of fishing net buoys that they may not use frequencies that are reserved for Automatic Identification Systems (AIS), which are available exclusively for marine navigation safety communications. These frequencies are: 156.775 MHz, 156.825 MHz, 161.975 MHz, or 162.025 MHz. The FCC noted that the non-compliant devices causing the most trouble are advertised and operated to mark and track commercial and recreational fishing nets – i.e., fishing net buoys. The Enforcement Bureau stated that the use of non-compliant AIS devices is illegal and has the potential to disrupt important maritime communications, which increases the risk of maritime accidents by creating confusion about whether an AIS signal represents a vessel that must be avoided. The Enforcement Bureau continued that “[a]nyone advertising or selling these non-compliant fishing net buoys or other non-compliant AIS devices should stop immediately, and anyone owning such devices should not use them. Sellers, advertisers, and operators of non-compliant AIS equipment may be subject to substantial monetary penalties” of up to $19,639 per day for marketing violations and up to $147,290 for an ongoing violation. Users could be subject to similar penalties if they ignore warnings from the FCC to cease illegal operations.

What is AIS? - AIS is the maritime navigation safety communications system intended to limit maritime accidents by automatically broadcasting and exchanging marine vessel information – including a vessel's identity, type, position, course, speed, navigational status, and other safety-related information – between and among AIS-equipped shore stations, aircraft, and other vessels. AIS also facilitates ship monitoring and tracking by the US Coast Guard and other maritime authorities. The International Maritime Organization and the Coast Guard require certain self-propelled cargo, passenger, and commercial vessels to carry AIS equipment. In this regard, the FCC’s Rules specify that AIS equipment may operate on the frequencies 156.775 MHz, 156.825 MHz, 161.975 MHz, or 162.025 MHz.

Like other transmitting equipment, AIS equipment must be certified for use by the FCC in order to ensure that it complies with the FCC’s technical rules and avoids interference with federal government operations, private licensed operations and other authorized equipment. Any equipment that transmits a radio signal or energy that does not comply with relevant technical requirements cannot be certified and therefore, may not be imported, manufactured, advertised, sold or used in the United States. You can determine whether or not your equipment is certified because it will have a label with an FCC Identifier on the surface of the product, within a user accessible non-detachable compartment (e.g., battery compartment), on the packaging of the device and/or within the electronic menu if the device has an electronic display .

The bottom line from the FCC is that any device that operates on an AIS frequency and is advertised to mark or track a commercial or recreational fishing net is not certified and may not be used. Compliant maritime equipment intended for the tracking of fishing nets is authorized to operate in the 1900-2000 kHz band and not on AIS frequencies. As a result, these devices will not be advertised as AIS equipment.

NYPD Gets Waiver of T-Band Freeze

The NYPD requested a modification of its license in order to modify a repeater and add another repeater in the 470-512 MHz band (T-Band). When filing its application, NYPD also requested a waiver of the FCC’s freeze on the acceptance and processing of T-Band applications, which included applications such as the NYPD application that sought to expand the station’s geographic foot print. The purpose of the freeze was to “stabilize the spectral environment while the Commission considers issues surrounding the future use of the T-Band and implementation of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 (the Act).” As a result, the FCC is not accepting or processing applications for modification of license that propose changes in technical parameters that expand a station’s geographic foot print to add or change locations – unless the new site does not increase the licensed station contour.

In granting the waiver, the FCC noted that the original parameters specified on the license for Location 1 contained inaccurate geographic coordinates and that the modification of license would conform the license to the actual operating parameters of the station. As a result, the FCC found that the proposed license modification would not “materially alter the spectrum landscape.” Likewise, with respect to new Location No. 3, the FCC found that it would not result in an extension of the licensed foot print and therefore, the new site would be permitted in accordance with the FCC’s subsequent clarification that modifications would be permitted provided that there was not an increase in the licensed station contour.

The FCC also made clear that with respect to new Location No. 3, NYPD would not be entitled to reimbursement of relocation expenses, since the license for that site would be granted after the enactment of the Act.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast and Richard Rubino

FCC Extends Reply Comment Deadline for Flexible Use of 3.7-4.2 GHz Band

The FCC has extended the deadline to file reply comments on its Notice of Proposed Rulemaking in GN Docket No. 18-122, in which the FCC proposed to add a mobile, except aeronautical mobile, allocation to the 3.7 – 4.2 GHz band. Reply comments are now due December 11.

The NPRM original set dates for comments and reply comments as October 29 and November 27, 2018, respectively. On November 19, the Dynamic Spectrum Alliance, the American Cable Association, Competitive Carriers Association, the Public Interest Spectrum Coalition and the Wireless Internet Service Providers Association sought an extension of time to submit reply comments. Among other things, these petitioners argued that an additional two weeks would allow commenters to better prepare more thorough, fact-based responses, and noted that that the original 30-day reply period encompasses the Thanksgiving holiday and that comments were due shortly after the holiday.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast and Cary Mitchell.

FCC Provides State of Wisconsin Limited Relief on its Construction Obligations for Part 22 Paging Channels

The State of Wisconsin requested that the FCC reconsider its denial of Wisconsin’s request to extend the deadline for filing its construction notifications for twenty-five Part 22 Paging (paging) licenses operating as a part of Wisconsin’s statewide, interoperable public safety communications network. In making its request, Wisconsin sought either (a) a grant of an extension of time within which to file its construction notification, (b) acceptance of its earlier construction notifications that had been filed in 2016 or (c) a waiver of the construction requirements. While the FCC denied Wisconsin’s petition for reconsideration, finding that it had made no showing that an extension was warranted and that it had not satisfied the construction requirements, the FCC did find that the public interest would support a partial waiver of the construction requirements for 14 of the 25 licenses, as well as the FCC’s technical rules to permit continued operation of those radio facilities that had been in operation as of the extended July 3, 2017 construction deadline. In this case, it is important to note that while the FCC had found Wisconsin’s 2016 substantial service showing to be insufficient, it granted an extension so that Wisconsin could either (a) meet the substantial service requirements for the entire market, (b) partition those areas of the license to another party or (c) cancel the unused license area so that its construction notification could demonstrate substantial service for the retained license area.

In evaluating Wisconsin’s construction activities for those licenses that were in operation as of July 3, 2017, the FCC noted that Wisconsin’s service coverages were quite low and that no individual market license reached a level that would be considered “substantial service”. In fact, the FCC found that Wisconsin had only constructed a single base station in each of the affected 11 markets which provided a population coverage of between 0% (or close to 0%) and 15%. While the FCC recognized that Wisconsin relies on these frequencies as part of its larger state-wide public safety communications system, the FCC concluded that this fact did not relieve Wisconsin of its obligation to meet the construction requirements for each of the Part 22 geographic paging licenses individually. Likewise, even where it did construct, in some cases the construction was inconsistent with the FCC’s rules and no waiver had been obtained, much less requested.

While the FCC concluded that providing Wisconsin with more time to meet its construction obligations is not justified, it did find that there were unique circumstances present here justifying the grant of limited relief. As a result, the FCC has granted a conditional waiver of Rule Section 22.503(k) to allow Wisconsin to keep those portions of the license areas where it was operating as of July 3, 2017. Without such a waiver, failure to meet the Commission’s construction requirements would result in automatic termination of the licenses, which would be contrary to the public interest since it would result in the construction of a statewide public safety communications system that was incapable of interoperable communications throughout the state.

For those of our clients who use Part 22 paging channels to meet private internal communications needs such as dispatch and talk-around communications, it is important to note that mobile-to-mobile communications only, without the construction of a paired base station, is insufficient to meet the buildout/construction requirements. The FCC’s rules provide that the unpaired high VHF channels for paging operation are allocated only for use as base stations.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast and Richard Rubino

FCC Denies Mount Olive, NJ Late-Filed Request for Extension to Build Public Safety Stations

The Township of Mount Olive, New Jersey filed an untimely request for extension of time within which to construct various public safety radio facilities. The first extension request was filed two (2) days after the expiration of the construction period, and three months after the FCC had reminded Mount Olive of the impending construction deadline. A week following the dismissal of the first extension request, Mount Olive filed a second request along with a request for waiver of the deadline. In its waiver request, Mount Olive explained that a contract dispute with its vendor was the circumstance outside its control that led to construction delays.

The FCC’s standard for construction extensions carries a high burden. It is generally necessary to demonstrate that you have used due diligence, and that the failure to construct in a timely manner is due to reasons beyond the licensee’s control. Here, the FCC noted that once the first vendor had defaulted, Mount Olive had plenty of time to terminate the contract and award a contract to a new vendor. Mount Olive waited nine months to terminate the contract, and awarded the new contract only days before the construction period expired.

Any client who anticipates difficulty in meeting its construction obligations should contact our office as soon as possible, so that we can assist you in taking proactive action to maximize the chance of an extension.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast and Richard Rubino

FCC Modifies Aviation Service Rules to Accelerate Transition to 406 MHz ELTs

The FCC has modified its rules to accelerate the transition to 406 MHz Emergency Locator Transmitters (ELTs), in order to enhance the ability of search and rescue personnel to locate victims of plane crashes.

Currently, there are two types of ELTs in service – those that operate on 121.5 MHz and those on 406 MHz. The 406 MHz ELTs transmit a digital distress signal containing information on the type of emergency, the country and identification code of the beacon, and other data to assist search and rescue operations; and a lower-powered homing signal on 121.5 MHz to guide search and rescue teams to the aircraft once they arrive in the general area. The 121.5 MHz ELTs on the other hand transmit an analog signal containing only an audio alert which is intended to serve both as a distress signal and a homing signal.

Over the past decade, developments in the satellite monitoring framework used by EPIRBs and ELTs have undermined their reliance on 121.5 MHz as the key frequency that enables them to effectively perform the public safety functions for which they were authorized. In 2009, the Cospas-Sarsat satellite system that had formerly monitored both the 121.5 MHz and 406 MHz bands for EPIRBS and ELTs announced that it would cease monitoring 121.5 MHz, due to reliability issues and false alerts with 121.5 MHz radio beacons. As a result, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the US Coast Guard, the US Air Force and NASA advised users to make the switch to 406 MHz. Since that time, the FCC has modified its rules governing EPIRBS in order to phase out those that are designed to transmit distress alerts on the frequency 121.5 MHz. Additionally, in 2003, the FCC stopped certifying 121.5 MHz EPIRBS and prohibited the sale and manufacture of those devices. However, the FAA and Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association requested that the FCC reverse this decision.

In response to comments received, the FCC has determined that it will now prohibit the certification of 121.5 MHz ELTs, and after a six-month transition period, the manufacture, importation and sale of those devices so that it can accelerate the transition of ELTs to 406 MHz. The FCC recognizes that the advantages associated with the 406 MHz ELTs have only increased – especially since there is global coverage, fewer false alerts, more precise identification of crash sites and greater likelihood of activation in the event of a crash. The FCC also notes that unlike in the early 2000s, there is now sufficient manufacturing capacity and depth in the supply chain to meet demand for the 406 MHz ELTs.

It is important to note that while the FCC is prohibiting the certification, manufacture, importation and sale of 121.5 MHz ELTs, it is not prohibiting the use of those devices.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast and Richard Rubino

FCC Seeks Comment on Extension of 3650-3700 MHz Transition Deadline

The FCC has issued a Public Notice seeking comment on the request of the Wireless Internet Service Providers Association (WISPA) and Utilities Technology Council (UTC) for additional time for grandfathered wireless broadband licensees operating in the 3650-3700 MHz band to complete the transition of their operations to the Part 96 Citizens Broadband Radio Service rules. Comments are due December 12, and reply comments are due December 24.

The current transition period for 3650-3700 MHz band licensees will end between April 17, 2020 and January 8, 2023, depending on the grant and expiration dates of each individual license. WISPA and UTC have requested that the transition window for all grandfathered 3650-3700 MHz band licensees be extended through January 8, 2023, which would, among other things, reduce the potential for confusion.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast, Cary Mitchell and Richard Rubino.

FCC Enforcement Actions Against Illegal Digital Light Displays Lead to $850,000 in Penalties

Over the past eight months, the FCC has entered into 21 settlement agreements with companies that have marketed non-compliant LED signs in violation of the Communications Act and FCC rules. The settlements resulted in approximately $850,000 in penalties (with some fines as high as $115,000) being paid to the U.S. Treasury.

The FCC has stated that “[a]dherence to [its] equipment authorization and marketing rules is critical because radio-frequency emissions from the LED signs may cause harmful interference to licensed communications, such as wireless services.” Accordingly, the FCC is reminding LED sign marketers that the FCC takes seriously its obligation to ensure that energy emitting devices, such as LED lights, do not interfere with authorized radio transmissions. In this regard, the FCC noted that LED lights are often used in digital billboards and other commercial and industrial applications, including billboards and large video displays in sports arenas.

It is important to remember that prior to marketing any device in the United States that could emit RF energy, whether intentionally or unintentionally, the device must be tested to ensure that it complies with the FCC’s technical standards and must include proper labeling, identification and user information disclosures. While the FCC’s focus has recently been on LED lights, many other devices must also comply with the FCC’s equipment authorization rules, including: garage door openers, computer mice, computer peripheral devices, medical equipment, modems, automobile key fobs, etc.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast and Richard Rubino

FCC Calls for More Carriers to Combat Robocalls

On November 5, the FCC issued a Press Release indicating that FCC Chairman Ajit Pai today “demanded” that the phone industry adopt a robust call authentication system to combat illegal caller ID spoofing, and launch that system no later than next year. Specifically, Chairman Pai sent letters to voice providers this afternoon, asking those that apparently have not yet established concrete plans to protect their customers using the Signature-based Handling of Asserted Information Using toKENs (SHAKEN) and the Secure Telephone Identity Revisited (STIR) standards to do so without delay. Under the SHAKEN/STIR framework, calls traveling through interconnected phone networks would be “signed” as legitimate by originating carriers and validated by other carriers before reaching consumers. The framework digitally validates the handoff of phone calls passing through the complex web of networks, allowing the phone company of the consumer receiving the call to verify that a call is from the person supposedly making it.

The next day, on November 6, the FCC issued a second Press Release announcing that it has sent letters to voice providers, calling on them to assist industry efforts to trace scam robocalls that originate on or pass through their networks. These letters, written by FCC Enforcement Bureau Chief Rosemary Harold and Chief Technology Officer Eric Burger, were sent to voice providers that are not participating in these “traceback” efforts, including those the FCC has encouraged to do more to guard against illegal traffic. These traceback efforts assist the FCC in identifying the source of illegal calls.

“It is vital that public and private stakeholders work together to combat scam calls,” said Chief Harold about the letters. “It hinders both FCC enforcement and industry call authentication work when companies do not cooperate with traceback efforts. We must do everything we can to catch and stop scammers, and industry cooperation is vital to achieving that goal.”

“The industry is helping combat illegal robocalls and spoofing, but more must be done,” said Dr. Burger about the letters. “We hope all carriers and interconnected VoIP providers will join these traceback efforts and implement tools to speed the traceback process, such as deploying a robust call authentication framework. In my experience, strong enforcement is the best tool against bad actors, and improved traceback is a critical tool for finding scammers.”

The agency also wrote to broadband industry trade association USTelecom to thank it for its leadership in the traceback effort. About two years ago, USTelecom, formed a group to share information among carriers and providers to help “traceback” the traffic of illegal calls to the originating provider. Industry participation in this call traceback effort has proved useful in the Commission’s enforcement efforts to combat illegal robocalling and spoofing.

“A critical component of effective enforcement against robocalling and spoofing abuses is to quickly identify the source of the traffic by tracing back the calls to their origination,” wrote Harold and Burger in today’s letters. “Neither government nor industry, without the active assistance of the other, can hope to stem the flood of scam calls plaguing consumers across the country.”

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast, Ben Dickens, Sal Taillefer and Richard Rubino.

USDA Announces $91 Million in Infrastructure Loans and Grants

On November 13, Assistant to the Secretary for Rural Development Anne Hazlett announced that USDA is investing in infrastructure projects in a dozen states to improve e-Connectivity in rural communities. “In the modern economy, rural broadband is a lifeline to quality of life and economic opportunity,” Hazlett said. “With that impact, USDA is fiercely committed under the leadership of Agriculture Secretary Perdue on expanding access to e-Connectivity in rural America.”

Specifically, USDA is investing $91 million through the Telecommunications Programs. The 19 projects will benefit more than 27,000 businesses and households in Arkansas, Georgia, Iowa, Kentucky, Minnesota, North Carolina, North Dakota, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Utah and Virginia. Examples of the projects in which USDA is investing include:

  • The Arkansas Rural Internet Company is receiving a $19.9 million loan to deploy a fiber broadband system to more than 5,000 subscribers in Dallas, Calhoun and Ouachita counties in rural southern Arkansas. Approximately 25,000 people in the company’s service territory can benefit from broadband access.
  • In New Mexico, the Tularosa Basin Telephone Company Inc. will use an $11.8 million loan to improve telecommunications for nearly 10,000 customers in the Carrizozo, Cloudcroft and Tularosa exchanges. Tularosa will build 176 miles of fiber-optic facilities, construct new fiber-to-the-premises (FTTP) facilities, and upgrade digital subscriber line (DSL) and FTTP electronics. The improvements will enhance the company’s services and provide subscribers voice and higher broadband speeds.
  • The Choctaw Nation is receiving a $2.9 million grant to construct a hybrid fiber and fixed wireless system on unserved portions of Le Flore County, Oklahoma. This project will increase access to economic development, health care, educational and public safety opportunities for 300 households and 15 businesses. It will include a community center in the Hodgen School where the public can access computer terminals and Wi-Fi service free of charge.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast, Sal Taillefer and Richard Rubino

OSHA’s New Fixed Ladder Standards Are Now in Effect

Last year, the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) adopted new standards for fixed ladders. These types of ladders are found in industrial applications attached or fastened to a building or secure surface as well as on some antenna towers.

Important changes of note are, as follows:

  • New Height Requirement for fall protection is 24 feet, which is in line with ANSI standard A14.3.
  • As of November 19, 2018, cages are no longer suitable for fall protection on newly installed ladders. Newly installed ladders must now include a personal fall arrest system or a ladder safety system.
  • As of November 18, 2018, a personal fall arrest system must be used to replace any damaged or non-functioning section, cage or well that was previously installed on a fixed ladder.
  • As of November 19, 2036, safety cages will no longer be acceptable and all fixed ladders that are taller than (or extend beyond) 24 feet must use a personal fall arrest system or a ladder safety system.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast and Richard Rubino

FCC Reminds Providers of Facilities-Based Fixed Residential Voice Services of Requirement to Offer 24-Hour Backup Power for CPE

The FCC’s Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau is reminding providers of facilities-based fixed residential voice services that are not line-powered (fixed service providers) that they must offer to sell subscribers “at least one option that provides a minimum of twenty-four hours of standby backup power” for customer premises equipment. This requirement will be effective February 13, 2019 and increases the requirement to offer back up power from the current eight hours.

The FCC adopted its Backup Power Order in 2015, which mandated that service providers offer subscribers at least one option with eight hours of standby back up power. That order also contemplated that service providers would be required to add the 24-hour option after three years.

The FCC is also reminding service providers that they are required to provide consumer education. Specifically, the FCC’s rules require carriers to disclose the following information to subscribers at the point of sale and annually thereafter: (a) availability of backup power sources; (b) service limitations with and without backup power during a power outage; (c) purchase and replacement options; (d) expected backup power duration; (e) proper usage and storage conditions for the backup power source; (f) subscriber backup power self-testing and monitoring instructions; and (g) backup power warranty details, if a warranty is offered.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast, Ben Dickens, Richard Rubino and Sal Taillefer

This newsletter is not intended to provide legal advice. Those interested in more information should contact the firm.


Harold Mordkofsky, 202-828-5520,
Benjamin H. Dickens, Jr., 202-828-5510,
Gerard J. Duffy, 202-828-5528,
John A. Prendergast, 202-828-5540,
Richard D. Rubino, 202-828-5519,
Mary J. Sisak, 202-828-5554,
D. Cary Mitchell, 202-828-5538,
Salvatore Taillefer, Jr., 202-828-5562,

blue line

Complete Technical Services for the Communications and Electronics Industries

Technical Services Inc.

Texas Registered Engineering Firm #F16945

“It's more than Push-To-Talk”

7711 Scotia Drive
Dallas, TX 75248-3112

Ira Wiesenfeld, P.E.

President • Principal Engineer

Cell: 214-707-7711
Toll Free: 844-IWA-TECH (844-492-8324)

Design  •  Installation  •  Maintenance  •  Training

blue line


blue line

From: Frank Moorman
Subject: The Wireless Messaging News for Frank Moorman
Date: November 30, 2018 at 11:42:15 AM CST
To: Brad Dye

Good morning Brad,

Please quote the following ad for 2 weeks:

We calibrate, repair, overhaul, buy and sell, and have parts for the 2 brands of Service Monitors  that are left standing.

(254) 596-1124
Cranfills Gap, TX 76637
Frank Moorman


Frank Moorman
Aero Radio, Inc.

No charge Frank, “the cupboard is bare” so please click on the "Donate" button below and send whatever you can — always good to hear from you.

“Old Mother Hubbard, went to the cupboard, to fetch her poor dog a bone, And when she went there, the cupboard was bare, and so the poor dog had none.”
—Sarah Catherine Martin

blue line

Current member or former member of these organizations.

Best regards,
brad's signature
Newsletter Editor
Licensed since 1957

Brad Dye
P.O. Box 266
Fairfield, IL 62837


mensa member

If you are curious about why I joined Mensa, click here .

U.S. Navy

radioman second class
Second Class
Petty Officer



A Public Library of
animated gif
Paging and Wireless Messaging
Information Web Site

cmma European Mobile Messaging Association
emma logo
Former Board Member

Radio Club of Paraguay
Quarter Century
Wireless Association
Back To Paging
Still The Most Reliable
Wireless Protocol
For Emergencies!


Skype: braddye
Twitter: @BradDye1
Telephone: +1-618-599-7869
Wireless: Consulting page
Paging: Home Page
Marketing & Engineering Papers
K9IQY: Ham Radio Page

Boy Scouts of America

National Honor Society
  Amateur Radio
Since 1957
Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers
wireless logo medium
Radio Club

of America
Life is good!

I am a person in
long-term recovery.

blue line


blue line

“Life on Earth is at the ever-increasing risk of being wiped out by a disaster, such as sudden global nuclear war, a genetically engineered virus or other dangers we have not yet thought of.”

—Stephen Hawking

blue line


blue line

The new supercomputer
behind the US nuclear arsenal

Playing For Change

Verge Science
Published on Nov 20, 2018

“Sierra” was just crowned the second-most powerful supercomputer on the planet. And while most of its peers use their power for climate simulations, astrophysics, and other civilian work, Sierra is purpose-built for an entirely different mission: nuclear weapons. We took a tour of this massive system, and found out why the US builds supercomputers to support its nuclear arsenal.

Source: YouTube  

blue line

Home Page Directory Consulting Newsletters Free Subscription Products Reference Glossary Send e-mail