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Wireless News Aggregation

Friday — February 4, 2022 — Issue No. 996

Welcome Back To

The Wireless
Messaging News

Wireless Messaging News

  • Emergency Radio Communications
  • Wireless Messaging
  • Critical Messaging
  • Two-way Radio
  • Technology
  • Telemetry
  • Science
  • Paging
  • Wi-Fi
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You can share in supporting The Wireless Messaging News. Your support will help extend our message that Paging Technology is not out-of-date and that it is still needed. While this appeal? Because ads and donations have fallen off dramatically in the last several years.

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To all previous donors and advertisers who have already decided to support The Wireless Messaging News, you are invited to remain committed to our partnership with continued support.

This Week's Wireless News Headlines:

  • You can share in supporting The Wireless Messaging News. Your support will help extend our message that Paging Technology is not out-of-date and that it is still needed. While this appeal? Because ads and donations have fallen off dramatically in the last several years.

    Yes! I want to help. Click here. left arrow

    Or, click here for information on advertising.

    To all previous donors and advertisers who have already decided to support The Wireless Messaging News, you are invited to remain committed to our partnership with continued support.

  • (video) How to speed up a slow Wi-Fi signal
  • FCC proposal would prevent spam callers from leaving ringless voicemails on your cellphone
  • I Thought I Hated Texting, but I Was Just Doing It Wrong
    • Brad's notes
  • Microsoft reminds everyone how advanced a Mac trojan can be with new security report
  • Apple Watch saves man's life after fall in freezing temperatures
  • Japan's Ministry of Communications supports ham radio
  • Inside Towers
    • 3M Issues "Stop Use and Inspect" Notice for Protecta Self-Retracting Lifelines
  • BloostonLaw Telecom Update
    • Gigi Sohn’s Nomination Pulled from Confirmation Vote
    • FCC Announces Rural Broadband Accountability Plan, More Audits of USF Recipients
    • FCC Announces Tentative Agenda for February Open Meeting
    • Ninth Circuit Denies Preliminary Injunction of California Net Neutrality Law
    • Comment Sought on Point-of-Sale Broadband Labels
    • FCC Eliminates White Space Push Requirement, Seeks Comment on Re-Check Interval
    • FCC Upholds Fine for Jammer Use to Block Employee’s Cell Phones
    • FCC Formally Revokes China Unicom Americas’ Section 214 Authority
    • FCC Announces Next Round of RDOF Funding
    • Video Recording of October 2021 Virtual Field Hearing on Communications Resiliency Now Available
    • Deadlines
  • BloostonLaw Private Users Update
    • Manufacturers, Critical Infrastructure Providers and Carriers Should Review Cybersecurity Practices
    • FCC Seeks Comment on RF Standards
    • Chairwoman Rosenworcel Circulates New Data Breach Reporting Proposal
    • President Biden Renominates Sohn for FCC
    • NWCC Raising Concerns About LPTV Station Interference to Private Land Mobile Operations
    • FCC Affirms $22,000 Fine for Illegal Use of Signal Jamming Equipment
    • FCC Orders Land Owners to Dismantle Tower They Don’t Own
    • BloostonLaw Contacts
    • Calendar At-a-Glance
    • The LONGEST Certified HDMI 2.1 Cable I've (by Vincent Teoh) Tested to Pass 4K@120Hz (48Gbps)
    • “Over The Hill”
    • John Hiatt


This doesn't mean that nothing is ever published here that mentions a US political party—it just means that the editorial policy of this newsletter is to remain neutral on all political issues. We don't take sides.

About Us

A new issue of the Wireless Messaging Newsletter is posted on the web each week. A notification goes out by e-mail to subscribers on most Fridays around noon central US time. The notification message has a link to the actual newsletter on the web. That way it doesn’t fill up your incoming e-mail account.

There is no charge for subscription and there are no membership restrictions. Readers are a very select group of wireless industry professionals, and include the senior managers of many of the world’s major Paging and Wireless Messaging companies. There is an even mix of operations managers, marketing people, and engineers — so I try to include items of interest to all three groups. It’s all about staying up-to-date with business trends and technology.

I regularly get readers’ comments, so this newsletter has become a community forum for the Paging, and Wireless Messaging communities. You are welcome to contribute your ideas and opinions. Unless otherwise requested, all correspondence addressed to me is subject to publication in the newsletter and on my web site. I am very careful to protect the anonymity of those who request it.

I spend the whole week searching the INTERNET for news that I think may be of interest to you — so you won’t have to. This newsletter is an aggregator — a service that aggregates news from other news sources. You can help our community by sharing any interesting news that you find.

Editorial Policy

Editorial Opinion pieces present only the opinions of the author. They do not necessarily reflect the views of any of advertisers or supporters. This newsletter is independent of any trade association. I don't intend to hurt anyone's feelings, but I do freely express my own opinions.

What happens if you don't advertise? . . . NOTHING!

Click on the image above for more info about advertising in this newsletter.



How would you like to help support The Wireless Messaging News? Your support is needed. New advertising and donations have fallen off considerably.
A donation through PayPal is easier than writing and mailing a check and it comes through right away.

There is not a lot of news about Paging these days but when anything significant comes out, you will probably see it here. I also cover text messaging to other devices and various articles about related technology.

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Advertiser Index

Easy Solutions  (Vaughan Bowden)
Frank Moorman
IWA Technical Services, Inc.  (Ira Wiesenfeld)
Leavitt Communications  (Phil Leavitt)
Prism-IPX Systems  (Jim Nelson & John Bishop)
Paging & Wireless Network Planners LLC  (Ron Mercer)

Service Monitors and Frequency Standards for Sale

Motorola Service Monitor

IFR Service Monitor

IFR 500A Service Monitor

(Images are typical units, not actual photos of items offered for sale here.)

Qty Item Notes
2 Late IFR 500As  
1 Motorola R 2001D  
4 Motorola R 2400 and 2410A  
5 Motorola R 2600 and R 2660 late S/Ns  
4 Motorola R 1200  
2 Motorola R 2200  
2 Stand-alone Efratom Rubidium Frequency Standards 10 MHz output
1 Telawave model 44 wattmeter Recently calibrated
1 IFR 1000S  
All sold with 7-day ROR (Right of Refusal), recent calibration, operation manual, and accessories.  
Factory carrying cases for each with calibration certificate.  
Many parts and accessories  

Frank Moorman animated left arrow

(254) 596-1124

Calibration and Repair (NIST 17025)
Upgrades: We can add the FE 5680A 10 MHz rubidium clock to your unit. Small unit fits into the well in the battery compartment — making it a world standard accuracy unit that never needs to be frequency calibrated.
Please inquire by telephone or e-mail.
Most Service Monitor Accessories in stock.

Source: YouTube  

Leavitt Communications


50 years experience providing and supporting radio and paging customers worldwide. Call us anytime we can be useful!






Minitor VI

Leavitt sells and supports most pager brands. We stock Unication G1, G5, Secure and some Elegant pagers. Call or e-mail for price and availability.

Philip C. Leavitt, V.P.
Leavitt Communications
7508 N. Red Ledge Drive
Paradise Valley, AZ 85253

Web Site:
Mobile phone: 847-494-0000
Telephone: 847-955-0511
Fax: 270-447-1909
Skype ID: pcleavitt

FCC proposal would prevent spam callers from leaving ringless voicemails on your cellphone

Companies would have to obtain your consent before leaving a direct message.

Igor Bonifacic — February 2nd, 2022

POOL New / reuters

The Federal Communications Commission could soon make it more difficult for telemarketers to leave ringless voicemails on your cellphone. On Wednesday, Chairwoman Jessica Rosenworcel shared a proposal that seeks to force callers to obtain your consent before they can leave a message directly in your voicemail box.

The proposal would effectively extend the protections of the Telephone Consumer Protection Act to cover ringless voicemails. The 1991 law prohibits telemarketers and other groups from using automated systems to make non-emergency calls to your mobile phone without first obtaining your consent. In March 2017, a company called All About the Message asked the FCC to rule that the TCPA did not cover ringless voicemails. Rosenworcel’s proposal would deny that petition.

“Ringless voicemail can be annoying, invasive and can lead to fraud like other robocalls—so it should face the same consumer protection rules,” said Rosenworcel. “No one wants to wade through voicemail spam, or miss important messages because their mailbox is full. This FCC action would continue to empower consumers to choose which parties they give permission to contact them.”

The FCC didn’t say when it plans to hold a full commission vote on the proposal. The agency’s next open meeting is scheduled for February 18th, but addressing ringless voicemails isn’t listed on the day’s agenda. There’s no guarantee the FCC will approve the proposal, but compared to a topic like net neutrality, combating spam callers is something most Americans want more action on from the government.

Source: engadget  

Paging Transmitters 150/900 MHz

The RFI High Performance Paging Transmitter is designed for use in campus, city, state and country-wide paging systems. Designed for use where reliable simulcast systems where RF signal overlap coverage is critical.

  • Commercial Paging systems.
  • Healthcare Paging systems.
  • Public Safety Emergency Services Paging systems.
  • Demand Response Energy Grid Management.

Built-in custom interface for Prism-IPX ipBSC Base Controller for remote control, management and alarm reporting.

  • Use as a stand-alone unit or in wide area network.
  • Mix with other transmitter brands in an existing paging network.
  • Adjustable from 20-250 watts.
  • 110/240 VAC or 48VDC.
  • Absolute Delay Correction.
  • Remote Diagnostics.
  • Configurable alarm thresholds.
  • Integrated Isolator.
  • Superb Reliability.
  • Improved amplifier efficiency.
  • Most reliable high-powered paging transmitter available.

Prism-IPX Systems LLC.

11175 Cicero Dr., Alpharetta, GA 30022
Ph: 678-242-5290 Email:


“Is Paging Going Away?” by Jim Nelson

  • Click here for English.
  • Click here for German. (Berlin Revision: November 8, 2016)
  • Click here for French.

Here is an English PDF edit of this paper formatted with page breaks and suitable for printing.

Volunteers needed for translations into other languages.

Board of Advisors

The Wireless Messaging News
Board of Advisors

Frank McNeill
Founder & CEO
Communications Specialists
Jim Nelson
President & CEO
Prism Systems International
Kevin D. McFarland, MSCIS
Sr. Application Systems Analyst
Medical Center
Paul Lauttamus, President
Lauttamus Communications & Security
R.H. (Ron) Mercer
Wireless Consultant
Barry Kanne
Paging Industry Veteran
Ira Wiesenfeld, P.E.
Consulting Engineer
Allan Angus
Consulting Engineer

The Board of Advisor members are people with whom I have developed a special rapport, and have met personally. They are not obligated to support the newsletter in any way, except with advice, and maybe an occasional letter to the editor.


Can You Help The Newsletter?

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You can help support The Wireless Messaging News by clicking on the PayPal Donate button above. It is not necessary to be a member of PayPal to use this service.

Reader Support

Newspapers generally cost 75¢ $1.50 a copy and they hardly ever mention paging or wireless messaging, unless in a negative way. If you receive some benefit from this publication maybe you would like to help support it financially?

A donation of $50.00 would certainly help cover a one-year period. If you are wiling and able, please click on the PayPal Donate button above.

I Thought I Hated Texting, but I Was Just Doing It Wrong

As a millennial who preferred phone calls and IRL convos, I thought texting was the worst. Then I discovered the art of long-form text messages.


Back in 2020, my mother caught COVID-19. Ever true to the Vietnamese parental philosophy of not burdening others with one’s own suffering, my mother withheld her illness from my sister and me. Then one evening, I received a text message from her, informing us in her typical understated fashion that she was sick, unable to breathe, and didn’t think she would make it through the night. Fortunately, my mother has since recovered, but I often wonder why she chose to deliver such shattering news not over the phone but through text.

As a millennial, some of my fondest memories consist of hours-long phone conversations with my high school best friend. Whether on the house phone or my cellular flip phone, I’d grown to associate these calls with intimacy. Text messaging, on the other hand, always seemed more like fast food, trivial bite-size bits consumed as quickly as they’re disregarded. As this communication method grew in complexity and popularity, my mild dislike metamorphosed into an aggressive aversion. Once sacred and profound, language was becoming increasingly commercialized with artificial intelligence that invaded my sentences, my thoughts with predictive text and auto-completion, and companies bombarding my phone with messages of sales announcements and coupon codes.

I now see how text messages can bridge the gaping disconnect imposed by the pandemic.

But at the end of last year, my husband and I abruptly moved out of our Brooklyn apartment to a new home in upstate New York. I found myself surrounded by trees and sequestered from my friends, colleagues, and the barista who knew my latte order by heart. No longer bound to the frantic ebb and flow of the city’s constant activity, time suddenly stretched forever. My days felt longer, my nights almost infinite. Craving the in-person, in-real-time conversations I once took for granted, I now see how text messages can bridge the gaping disconnect imposed by the pandemic and draw my loved ones and I closer together.

With my friends more than a six-hour drive away and phone calls and Zoom meetings demanding more of my time and attention than ever before, I began composing novel-length texts consisting of three paragraphs or more, often sent in a single message bubble. My first message went to my cousin and childhood best friend in Vietnam. To my surprise and delight, my lengthy texts were met with thoughtful lengthy responses.

When I received an aggressive comment from a stranger online that sent me spiraling down, I messaged another close friend. For three days and through dozens of hefty paragraphs, we granted one another the space and grace to gradually unfurl my rage, anxiety, and shame before shifting to her own inner battles. In more than eight years of our steadily growing friendship, I learned more about her during that text conversation than I had any other time.

“It gave me perspective,” my friend said, reflecting on our exchange. “I got the opportunity to learn what I think from writing to you.”

We granted one another the space and grace to gradually unfurl my rage.

And so I finally surrendered to the form, texting with my whole heart about my struggles adapting to country living and my newfound loneliness and isolation. As I offered more of myself through text messaging, something I’d previously felt familiar with and comfortable doing only in person, my friendships also blossomed like never before.

Gone are the days of lengthy, meandering phone calls made to fill the space of adolescent boredom. I now spend a majority of my adulthood juggling various tasks, errands, and personal and professional responsibilities. But these text conversations have helped me reclaim some of that lost intimacy. Texting allows us to express ourselves more authentically because it is like writing in a journal or speaking to ourselves. We could all benefit from extending patience to our inner thoughts, ruminating over our sentences, carefully considering each sentence as we search for the best words to express ourselves.

If we allow ourselves the time to compose a long and thoughtful text, we wouldn’t have to send hundreds of disjointed ones only to still feel misunderstood. The goal of communication is not only to be noticed but also to be connected. We should all master the art of slow, long-form texting. It shows the recipient that we have shown up to engage in a mutual dialogue, to listen, to learn, and to love.

Abbigail Nguyen Rosewood is a Vietnamese American author and founder of Neon Door, an immersive art exhibit. Her novels include If I Had Two Lives and Constellations of Eve and her short fiction and essays can be found at Salon, Lit Hub, Catapult, among others.
Source: Cosmopolitan


prism-ipx systems

With PRISM IPX Systems, Your message is delivered Secure & Encrypted

prism-ipx systems

prism-ipx systems

Prism IPX Products
PriMega Message Gateway
The PriMega manages a paging network from the message input using telephone and data lines to the data output to one or more paging transmitters, e-mail or text messaging destinations.
IPT Systems
The IPT is a versatile small footprint Linux based product used for small paging systems and for converting data protocols for messaging systems. Popular for converting text messaging transport protocols for linking message systems.
Message Logging Systems
Paging Message Logging software collects data decoded off-the-air and sends the data to the logging server. Logs can be used to prove messages were actual transmitted and were capable of being received without error.

Thousands of Users Worldwide Depend on Prism IPX

Our Customers Trust Us To Make Sure That Their Messages Get Delivered

Prism-IPX Systems products include full-featured radio paging systems with VoIP input, IP based transmitter control systems and paging message encryption. Other options include e-mail messaging, remote switch controllers, Off-The-Air paging message decoders and logging systems.

How Can We Help You With Your Critical Messaging Solutions?


MORE INFO HERE left arrow


Easy Solutions

easy solutions

Providing Expert Support and Service Contracts for all Glenayre Paging Systems.

The GL3000 is the most prolific paging system in the world and Easy Solutions gladly welcomes you to join us in providing reliable support to the paging industry for many more decades in the future.

Easy Solutions provides cost effective computer and wireless solutions at affordable prices. We can help in most any situation with your communications systems. We have many years of experience and a vast network of resources to support the industry, your system and an ever changing completive landscape.

  • We treat our customers like family. We don’t just fix problems . . . We recommend and implement better cost-effective solutions.
  • We are not just another vendor . . . We are a part of your team. All the advantages of high priced full-time employment without the cost.
  • We are not in the Technical Services business . . . We are in the Customer Satisfaction business.

Experts in Paging Infrastructure

  • Glenayre, Motorola, Unipage, etc.
  • Excellent Service Contracts
  • Full Service—Beyond Factory Support
  • Making systems More Reliable and MORE PROFITABLE for over 30 years.

Please see our web site for exciting solutions designed specifically for the Wireless Industry. We also maintain a diagnostic lab and provide important repair and replacement parts services for Motorola and Glenayre equipment. Call or e-mail us for more information.

Easy Solutions
3220 San Simeon Way
Plano, Texas 75023

Vaughan Bowden
Telephone: 972-898-1119
Telephone: 214 785-8255


I would like to recommend Easy Solutions for Support of all Glenayre Paging Equipment. This Texas company is owned and operated by Vaughan Bowden. I have known Vaughan for over 35 years. Without going into a long list of his experience and qualifications, let me just say that he was the V.P. of Engineering at PageNet which was—at that time—the largest paging company in the world. So Vaughan knows Paging.

GTES is no longer offering support contracts. GTES was the original group from Vancouver that was setup to offer support to customers that wanted to continue with the legacy Glenayre support. Many U.S. customers chose not to use this service because of the price and the original requirement to upgrade to version 8.0 software (which required expensive hardware upgrades, etc.). Most contracts ended as of February 2018.

If you are at all concerned about future support of Glenayre products, especially the “king of the hill” the GL3000 paging control terminal, I encourage you to talk to Vaughan about a service contract and please tell him about my recommendation.

Click on the image above for more info about advertising here.

INTERNET Protocol Terminal

The IPT accepts INTERNET or serial messaging using various protocols and can easily convert them to different protocols, or send them out as paging messages.

An ideal platform for hospitals, on-site paging applications, or converting legacy systems to modern protocols.

Input Protocols: Serial and IP
Output Protocols: Serial and IP
FLEX (optional PURC control)   POCSAG (optional PURC control)

Additional/Optional Features

  • Database of up to 5000 subscribers.
  • 4 serial ports on board.
  • Up to 8 phone lines (DID or POTS).
  • Can be configured for auto-fail-over to hot swap standby.
  • 1RU rack mount unit appliance—no moving parts.
  • Easily secure legacy system messages leaving site for HIPAA compliance.
  • Only purchase the protocols/options you need.
  • Add Paging Encryption for HIPAA compliance on site.

Prism-IPX Systems LLC.

11175 Cicero Dr., Alpharetta, GA 30022
Ph: 678-242-5290 e-mail:


by: Jenny List February 2, 2022

We’ve now spent several months in this series journeying through the world of audio, and along the way we’ve looked at the various parts of a Hi-Fi system from the speaker backwards to the source. It’s been an enjoyable ride full of technical detail and examining Hi-Fi myths in equal measure, but now it’s time to descend into one of the simplest yet most controversial areas of audio reproduction. Every audio component, whether digital or analogue, must be connected into whatever system it is part of, and this is the job of audio cables, sometimes referred to as interconnects. They are probably the single component most susceptible to tenuous claims about their performance, with audiophiles prepared to spend vast sums on cables claimed to deliver that extra bit of listening performance. Is there something in it, or are they all the same bits of wire with the expensive ones being a scam? Time to take a look.


In a typical domestic audio system with digital and analogue signals you might expect to find two types of cable, electrical interconnects that could carry either analogue or digital signals, and optical ones for digital signals. We’re here to talk about the electrical cables here as they’re the ones used for analogue signals, so lets start with a little transmission line theory.

This is what happens when I hook a bike light up to a DC power supply.

Perhaps one of the first electrical circuits you ever constructed had a battery and a flashlight bulb connected with a length of two-core flex. When you touched the wire to the battery terminals the bulb lit up, and when you released it the light was extinguished. It was a DC circuit with two states, off and on, and that’s all there was to it. But if you were to hook up a storage oscilloscope to the wire as you hooked up the bulb you might notice something interesting. Instead of jumping from off to on in an instantaneous transition, in fact the voltage would curve upwards over a few microseconds. The DC circuit suddenly doesn’t look as perfectly bi-state as first thought, so what’s going on?

The voltage curves upwards because the wires and bulb are not perfect. They have a small amount of resistance, inductance, and capacitance, referred to as parasitics, and it’s the interaction between these that causes the voltage to rise over a short time rather than immediately. It’s nearly immediate so it’s fine for a flashlight, but as soon as similar wires are used to carry a signal this parasitic RCL circuit will start to affect it. Early telegraph and telephone engineers faced this problem as their wires stretched hundreds of miles and thus had significant R, C, and L values that gave the effect of a low-pass filter. Their attempts to understand the phenomenon gave rise to what we now refer to as transmission line theory, with which anybody who’s worked with RF should be intimately familiar.

Equivalent circuit of a transmission line, showing the various parasitic components present. Omegatron (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Having said that, an audio interconnect is a transmission line in which consideration should be given to parasitic R, C, and L values, I am now going to turn that entirely on its head and say that within reason the transmission line performance of the interconnect as we’d understand it for radio circuits doesn’t matter much at audio frequencies. The reason comes down to the short length of an audio interconnect, which at something in the order of a couple of feet (or a meter) has parasitic values that are so tiny as to make little difference as a low pass filter. When this is compared to the wavelength at audio frequencies — 300 km at 1 kHz — it is insignificant.

Going back to our flashlight bulb, the current in those wires from the battery was DC, always flowing in the same direction. If we imagine them as single strand thick copper wires, we can further imagine the current within them as though it was water flow in an idealised plumbing system, with the flow evenly distributed across its cross-section. We know that electrical current creates magnetic fields, so the wires powering our bulb will be surrounded by a static field as long as the DC current flows.

The skin effect illustrated by a current density plot on a cross section of a conductor. δ refers to the skin depth, in which the majority of the current flows. Biezl, Public domain.

With an AC current such as an audio signal, the magnetic field is different. As the current changes so does the field, and since changing magnetic fields induce currents in nearby conductors it will induce extra currents in the wire. These don’t flow conveniently as linear currents along the conductor’s length, but as circular so-called eddy currents within it. Because part of the circular current flows forward and part backwards, towards the centre of the conductor the eddy currents cancel out the forward current.

This gives rise to the so-called skin effect, in which AC currents flow predominantly towards the outside of a conductor, and harking back to the earlier paragraph this can produce the result of increasing significantly that parasitic resistance at AC audio frequencies. For an audio interconnect this can adversely affect its quality, so it’s usual for audio cables to increase their surface area as much as possible by having many small strands of wire instead of a single larger one. In case that’s not enough, higher quality cables ensure the lowest resistance on the surface of the wire strands by silver- or gold-plating the copper.


Direction arrows on a speaker cable. Richard Corfield, with permission.

So we’ve established that a good audio cable should have minimal parasitic resistance, inductance, and capacitance. Due to its relatively short length its performance as a transmission line in the RF sense is largely irrelevant, and the skin effect can be reduced by using a multi-stranded cable. But there are some other things to consider when buying a decent cable, and they are perhaps the most interesting because here we enter the world of audiophile woo. If you look at cables in an audiophile catalogue you’ll see terms such as “Oxygen-free”, and “directional”, what do they mean?

Oxygen-free copper is a very high-grade form of refined copper. It has a very slightly better conductivity than regular copper because of the removal of impurities, and thus audiophiles claim that it delivers noticeably better quality. The reality is that the length of an audio interconnect is so small that the marginally better conductivity is not significant in its performance. Applications that require longer cables in the order of hundreds of metres could see a benefit so we’d expect to find it in scientific instrumentation for large projects such as CERN, but for short audio interconnects it’s simply a marketing tool.

If you buy a decent interconnect it’ll probably use oxygen-free copper, but its performance will come from using a large cross-section of fine and maybe silver-plated wires and not from the extra-pure copper. Directional cables are another matter, you will find many audio cables with little arrows on them indicating the direction in which the current should flow. A web search will reveal a variety of explanations for this that usually settle upon the parasitic diode action between individual grains in the mass of copper, and some of them even suggest that directionality will grow with use. It makes yet another great marketing tool for gullible audiophiles, but unlike the conductivity of oxygen-free copper it has no basis in truth. Audio cables or indeed any other cables simply are not directional, they work just as well whichever way round they are plugged in. Sorry audiophiles, you’ve been had.


Gold USB cables: not what they seem.

So far we’ve only looked at analogue audio cables in this piece, but of course they aren’t the only cables sold to audiophiles. You can buy “special” IEC mains cables at outrageous prices for example, or audiophile quality digital cables for Ethernet, USB, TOSlink, or HDMI.

A mains cable is just a mains cable as long as it has conductors rated for the appropriate current. Digital cables are almost as straightforward.

Along with digital cable myths is one element of truth, but it’s not one that should cost you hundreds of dollars. Digital cables are unlike analogue audio cables in that the bitrate comes at a much higher frequency than that of the signal encoded in the bits. Thus their transmission line performance becomes a significant issue, and occasionally this can show up in a choice of cable.

Find the cheapest sub-$5 HDMI cable on the market and the chances are it’ll work with a 1080p signal but not a 4K one, this is because its transmission line bandwidth isn’t up to the extra demands of 4K bitstreams. But before that $1,000 HDMI cable comes off the shelf, try a $10 one to replace the $2 one, and you might be pleasantly surprised.

Even the cheapest HDMI cable can carry multiple gigabits per second, and laughs at your digital audio bitrate way down in the megabits. And as long as the ones and zeros make it intact to the other end of the cable, there’s no sense in spending more money — there is no such thing as a better sounding one or zero.

There may be some audiophiles reading this piece and becoming irate, because clearly I don’t know what I’m talking about when it comes to directionality or oxygen-free copper, and especially with $1,000 mains leads or Ethernet cables. To them I’ll make this offer: there’s a pint of Old Hooky in an Oxford pub for the first person to prove me wrong. But the standard of proof is quite high, I’ll accept none of that “The oxygen-free gold-plated USB cable gives a rich chocolatey tone to the broader soundstage” mumbo-jumbo. Instead I’ll take side-by-side tests with a high-end professional audio analyser. Let’s see what the Audio Precision says about it, shall we? I hate to deny the most excellent Hook Norton Brewery a sale, but something tells me I won’t be buying that pint any time soon.

We’ll be back with another in this series, and having comprehensively explored the components of a domestic audio system it’s now time to look at it in another way. How can we measure audio performance?

Brad's notes:

For home theaters using Dolby Vision and Dolby Atmos surround sound, the quality and length of the HDMI cables is very important. The best choice is a Certified Ultra High Speed HDMI 48 Gbps cable. The requirements for cables with digital signals are quite different from cables with analog signals.

I have found it is better to use a 2-meter HDMI 2.1 cable than a 1-meter HDMI 2.1 cable even though the extra length is not physically needed. I replaced two 1-meter cables with two 2-meter cables in my home theater system and the chronic problems with clicking on a remote button, and sometimes nothing happening, were immediately resolved. It may be counter intuitive, but it works. This evidentially has something to do with round-trip timing. This issue/solution has been confirmed by the ISF (Imaging Science Foundation), Sound United training, and Audioholics.

More about HDMI cables and connectors here.


Paging Data Receiver PDR-4

The PDR-4 is a multi-function paging data receiver that decodes paging messages and outputs them via the serial port, USB or Ethernet connectors.

Designed for use with Prism-IPX ECHO software Message Logging Software to receive messages and log the information for proof of transmission over the air, and if the data was error free.

  • Option—decode capcode list or all messages.
  • Large capcode capacity.
  • Serial, USB and Ethernet output.
  • POCSAG or FLEX page decoding, special SA protocols.
  • Receivers for paging bands in VHF, UHF, 900 MHz.
  • Message activated Alarm Output.
  • 8 programmable relay outputs.
  • Send notifications of a system problem.
  • Synthesized Receiver Tuning.
  • Selectivity better than 60 dB.
  • Frequencies 148-174, 450-470, 929-932 MHz.
  • Image Rejection better than 55 dB.
  • Spurious Rejection better than 55 dB.
  • Channel Spacing 12.5 or 25 kHz.
  • Power 5VDC.
  • Receiving Sensitivity 5µV at 1200 bps.

Prism-IPX Systems LLC.

11175 Cicero Dr., Alpharetta, GA 30022
Ph: 678-242-5290 e-mail:

Wireless Network Planners

Wireless Network Planners
Wireless Specialists

R.H. (Ron) Mercer
217 First Street
East Northport, NY 11731

ron mercer
Telephone: 631-786-9359 left arrow left arrow



Microsoft reminds everyone how advanced a Mac trojan can be with new security report

Be it in the real world or cyberspace, viruses keep on evolving.


Source: Windows Central

What you need to know

  • The Microsoft 365 Defender Threat Intelligence team has released a new report showcasing the evolution of a trojan that's been on the scene since September 2020.
  • Since then, it's kept evolving in order to better torment Mac users.
  • Microsoft has dubbed the trojan UpdateAgent.

The Microsoft 365 Defender Threat Intelligence team is back with another massive report detailing its in-depth findings on the latest threat to computer owners' security. However, this time, Windows 11 users can stop sweating and put the towel down, since the heat is on Mac fans. Microsoft's report details a sophisticated trojan that's been steadily evolving since September 2020 to more effectively ruin Mac owners' days.

Microsoft has dubbed the trojan "UpdateAgent" and outlined its capabilities, which include pretending to be safe, harmless software and, worse, using a Mac's own specificities for nefarious purposes. If you thought Macs were bulletproof in terms of being able to safeguard you and only run trusted apps, UpdateAgent has bad news to share. And, worse, it's capable of cleaning its tracks once it's done ravaging your machine. Here's a taste of its evolutionary timeline, as stated by Microsoft:

Since its first appearance in September 2020, the malware displayed an increasing progression of sophisticated capabilities, and while the latest two variants were sporting much more refined behavior compared with earlier versions, they show signs that the malware is still in the development stage and more updates are likely to come. The latest campaign saw the malware installing the evasive and persistent Adload adware, but UpdateAgent's ability to gain access to a device can theoretically be further leveraged to fetch other, potentially more dangerous payloads.

Source: Microsoft

You can check out Microsoft's security blog post for the full scoop. Just know that so long as UpdateAgent variants roam the plains, Mac owners should use Microsoft Edge for additional protection (yes, the blog ultimately builds toward a Microsoft product plug, though there's additional guidance in the full post). This isn't the first time Microsoft's warned Apple fans of danger, and it likely won't be the last.

Source: Windows Central

Consulting Alliance

Brad Dye, Ron Mercer, Allan Angus, Vic Jackson, and Ira Wiesenfeld are friends and colleagues who work both together and independently, on wireline and wireless communications projects.

Click here left arrow for a summary of their qualifications and experience. Each one has unique abilities. We would be happy to help you with a project, and maybe save you some time and money.

Note: We do not like Patent Trolls, i.e. “a person or company who enforces patent rights against accused infringers in an attempt to collect licensing fees, but does not manufacture products or supply services based upon the patents in question.” We have helped some prominent law firms defend their clients against this annoyance, and would be happy to do some more of this same kind of work.

Some people use the title “consultant” when they don't have a real job. We actually do consulting work, and help others based on our many years of experience.

“If you would know the road ahead, ask someone who has traveled it.” — Chinese Proverb

Remote AB Switches

ABX-1 switches are often used at remote transmitter sites to convert from old, outdated and unsupported controllers to the new modern Prism-IPX ipBSC base station controllers. Remotely switch to new controllers with GUI commands.


ABX-3 switches are widely used for enabling or disabling remote equipment and switching I/O connections between redundant messaging systems.


Common Features:

  • RJ45 for A, B and Common connectors.
  • Manual push button or use Prism IP commands to switch one or more relays.
  • Single or Dual Port Control card for IP or Serial connection.
  • Form C relay—control local connection.
  • Power Loss Indicator.
  • Rear Panel Connector for controlling the switch externally.
  • Power Source: 5VDC for ABX-1; 12VDC for ABX-3.

Prism-IPX Systems LLC.

11175 Cicero Dr., Alpharetta, GA 30022
Ph: 678-242-5290 e-mail:

Apple Watch saves man's life after fall in freezing temperatures

William Gallagher | Jan 31, 2022

In the middle of the US east coast cold snap, emergency services saved an unconscious man in Morrow, Georgia, after his Apple Watch detected a fall and alerted local authorities.

Apple's latest ads for the Apple Watch Series 7 have concentrated on how the device can automatically call for help in emergencies. Now yet another example of this feature saving a life has been reported in the City of Morrow, Clayton County, Georgia.

According to local CB546 News Atlanta, an elderly resident fell while outside his property on January 23, 2022. His Watch detected the fall and, when he failed to respond that he was okay, alerted the Clayton County Emergency Communications Center.

"Since an Apple Watch initiated the call, the location of the call could only be determined by the watch's GPS, which reported the closest address," said City of Morrow Fire Department Deputy Chief Jeff Moss. "The Morrow Fire Department crew arrived on the scene with Morrow Police units and quickly noticed that the physical address was not where the patient was located and began a search of the perimeter."

The man was found nearby, reportedly in a semi-conscious, confused and extremely cold state. The total time between his Apple Watch calling for help and the man being found was 12 minutes.

He was taken to hospital for treatment and later released. According to emergency services, the extreme cold and an unspecified ongoing medical condition mean that the outcome could have "undoubtedly" been worse, without the Apple Watch.

This January 2022 is only the latest of very many similar incidents, including one from November 2021, where an 85-year-old's life was saved in Ottawa.

Source: Apple Insider

Leavitt Communications

We can supply alphanumeric display, numeric display, and voice pagers.

We also offer NEW and refurbished Alphamate 250s, refurbished Alphamate IIs, the original Alphamate refurbished, and new and refurbished pagers, pager repairs, pager parts, and accessories. We are FULL SERVICE in Paging! Outstanding service is our goal.

E-mail Phil Leavitt ( ) for pricing and delivery information, or for a list of other available paging and two-way related equipment.

Phil Leavitt

7508 N. Red Ledge Drive
Paradise Valley, AZ 85253

Japan's Ministry of Communications supports ham radio

In 2021 Japan's Minister of Digital Agency, Dr. Karen Makishima (LDP Kanagawa), established an Advisory Board that aims to encourage youth into Amateur Radio.

Historically the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC) considered amateur radio should be treated in the same way as those professional radio services whose purpose is to ensure reliable communication, but since the essence of amateur radio is experimental and educational it should be treated differently to professional/commercial radio users.

In November 2021 the MIC produced the report "Radio Policy Council in the Age of Digital Transformation" which notes:

  • "The amateur radio population is declining, and we must continue to make amateurs through various efforts"
  • "Young people will lead the future"
  • "Consider creating an environment that makes it easier to start amateur radio"
  • "We will proceed with studies toward the realization of a system and environment that makes it easier to utilize amateur radio, such as the realization of an experimental/research environment"
  • "Speeding up the procedure from acquiring an amateur radio operator license to opening and operating radio stations"
Source: Southgate  

Inside Towers Newsletter

Friday, February 4, 2022

Volume 10, Issue 24

Safety Notice!

3M Issues "Stop Use and Inspect" Notice for Protecta Self-Retracting Lifelines

3M Fall Protection has identified a potential manufacturing issue with a limited number of 3M Protecta Self-Retracting Lifelines (SRL) with galvanized or stainless-steel lifelines produced in September 2021. There have been no reports of injuries or accidents associated with this issue. This manufacturing issue could result in the SRL not engaging properly but can be easily detected through the pre-use inspection as specified in the Instruction for Use (IFU) document. See full release.

End-users are instructed to follow the steps below:

Step 1: Locate the label on the SRL to identify the manufacture date and lot number . If the SRL has a manufacture date of 21/SEP(September 2021) and lot number 21093746, continue to step 2. (Please note that regardless of the manufacture date, all SRLs should be inspected prior to every use and by a competent person annually as per the IFU).

Step 2: Pull the lifeline quickly to ensure that the SRL locks up. As per the IFU “Ensure the device locks up when the lifeline is jerked sharply. Lockup should be positive with no slipping.” If the SRL locks up properly and passes all other aspects of the pre-use inspection as defined in the IFU, the SRL is acceptable for use. If you find that your SRL does not lock up, take the Protecta® SRL out of service immediately. Please contact our Customer Service department: US: 1-833-638-2697 or CAN: 1-833-998-2243 and we will arrange to have the SRL inspected and repaired/replaced.

Source: Inside Towers newsletter Courtesy of the editor of Inside Towers, Jim Fryer.
Inside Towers is a daily newsletter by subscription.

BloostonLaw Newsletter

Selected portions [sometimes more — sometimes less — sometimes the whole updates] of the BloostonLaw Telecom Update and/or the BloostonLaw Private Users Update — newsletters from the Law Offices of Blooston, Mordkofsky, Dickens, Duffy & Prendergast, LLP — are reproduced in this section of The Wireless Messaging News with kind permission from the firm's partners. The firm's contact information is included at the end of this section of the newsletter.

  BloostonLaw Telecom Update Vol. 25, No. 5 February 2, 2022  

Gigi Sohn’s Nomination Pulled from Confirmation Vote

President Biden’s pick for the remaining vacancy on the FCC, Ms. Gigi Sohn, was scheduled to be considered by the Senate in an executive session at 10 a.m. this morning. According to CNET, the vote on her nomination was “pulled ahead of the meeting as a key Republican on the committee, Sen. Roger Wicker of Mississippi, has expressed concerns about a potential conflict of interest.”

As we’ve reported in previous editions of the BloostonLaw Telecom Update, Sohn has been considered a controversial pick and has been widely opposed by Republicans due to her stance on Net Neutrality.

BloostonLaw Contacts: Ben Dickens, Gerry Duffy, and Sal Taillefer.


FCC Announces Rural Broadband Accountability Plan, More Audits of USF Recipients

On January 28, the FCC announced it has created the “Rural Broadband Accountability Plan,” which according to a Press Release is “a new effort to monitor and ensure compliance for universal service high-cost programs including the Rural Digital Opportunity Fund.” According to a Fact Sheet accompanying the Press Release, the Rural Broadband Accountability Plan will “increase audits, verifications, and transparency for USF High Cost programs, including the Rural Digital Opportunity Fund.” Carriers receiving support will want to take this opportunity to make sure that their fund use meets all requirements, and that their documentation of compliance is in order at all times.

Specifically, the Fact Sheet indicates that the Rural Broadband Accountability Plan makes a number of changes and enhancements to existing audit and verification procedures:

  • The number of audits and verifications will double in 2022 as compared to 2021 and include on-site audits as well as audits and verifications based upon random selection.
  • USAC will conduct more verifications prior to a program’s first required deployment milestone.
  • The largest dollar recipients will be subject to an on-site audit in at least one state.
  • Higher risk recipients will be subject to additional audits and verifications.
  • For the first time, results of verifications, audits, and speed and latency performance testing will be made public on USAC’s website.

“Today’s announcement means more connectivity is coming to consumers, while we continue our commitment to make sure that funding goes to areas that truly need it,” said Chairwoman Rosenworcel. “The new Rural Broadband Accountability Plan will speed up our audit and verification processes and for the first time make public the results of verifications, audits, and speed and latency testing. These new measures will help ensure that the providers we fund in this program will do the job.”

BloostonLaw Contacts: Ben Dickens, Gerry Duffy, and Sal Taillefer.

Chairwoman Rosenworcel Announces “Ringless Voicemail” Order on Circulation

On February 2, the FCC issued a Press Release announcing that Chairwoman Jessica Rosenworcel has circulated for consideration by the full FCC a draft Declaratory Ruling which, if adopted, would “require callers to obtain a consumer’s consent before delivering a ’ringless voicemail,’ a message left in their mailbox without ringing their cell phone.”

Specifically, the Declaratory Ruling responds to a petition filed by All About the Message, which company asks the FCC to find that delivery of a message directly to a consumer’s cell phone voicemail is not a call protected by the TCPA. The Press Release indicates the Chairwoman’s proposed action would find ringless voicemails are, in fact, “calls” that require consumers’ prior express consent, and thus deny the petition.

“Ringless voicemail can be annoying, invasive, and can lead to fraud like other robocalls—so it should face the same consumer protection rules,” said Chairwoman Rosenworcel. “No one wants to wade through voicemail spam, or miss important messages because their mailbox is full. This FCC action would continue to empower consumers to choose which parties they give permission to contact them.”

BloostonLaw Contacts: Ben Dickens, John Prendergast, and Sal Taillefer.

FCC Announces Tentative Agenda for February Open Meeting

On January 28, the FCC issued a Press Release announcing that the items below are tentatively on the agenda for the February Open Commission Meeting scheduled for February 18:

  • Promoting Telehealth in Rural America: a Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking that would seek comment on reforms to the urban and rural rates determination process for the Rural Health Care Program’s Telecommunications Program, revisions to Rural Health Care Program rules governing the internal funding cap on upfront payments and multi-year contracts, and modifications to the Rural Health Care Program invoicing procedures. (WC Docket No. 17-310)
  • Aureon Refund Data Order: an Order requiring Iowa Network Access Division (d/b/a Aureon) to file cost and demand data to enable FCC staff to calculate appropriate refunds due to Aureon’s customers after two investigations into Aureon’s tariffed switched transport rate. (WC Docket No. 18-60)
  • Updating Technical Rules for Radio Broadcasters: a Report and Order to eliminate or amend outmoded or unnecessary broadcast technical rules. (MB Docket No. 21-263)

Each summary above contains a link to the draft text of each item expected to be considered at this Open Meeting. However, it is possible that changes will be made before the Meeting. One-page cover sheets prepared by the FCC are included in the public drafts to help provide an additional summary.

BloostonLaw Contacts: Ben Dickens, Gerry Duffy, and John Prendergast.

Ninth Circuit Denies Preliminary Injunction of California Net Neutrality Law

On January 28, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit denied a motion for preliminary injunction against the enforcement of the California Internet Consumer Protection and Net Neutrality Act of 2018, or SB-822. As we reported in a previous edition of the BloostonLaw Telecom Update, SB-822 essentially codifies the Net Neutrality rules that were repealed at the end of 2017.

A group of trade industry associations comprised of ACA Connects, CTIA, NCTA, and USTelecom filed the motion, which would have prevented the California Attorney General from enforcing SB-822. The associations primarily argued that SB-822 was preempted because it conflicted with the FCC’s policy in repealing Net Neutrality and reclassifying broadband as an unregulated Title I service.

The court held that, by classifying broadband Internet services as information services, the FCC no longer had the authority to regulate in the same manner that it did when these services were classified as telecommunications services. The FCC, therefore, could not preempt state action, like SB-822, that protects net neutrality.

BloostonLaw Contacts: Ben Dickens, Gerry Duffy, and Sal Taillefer.

Comment Sought on Point-of-Sale Broadband Labels

On January 27, the FCC adopted a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking proposing new rules that would require broadband providers to display “easy-to-understand labels to allow consumers to comparison shop for broadband services.” The proposal would require broadband providers to display, at the point of sale, labels that show prices, including introductory rates, as well as speeds, data allowances, network management practices, and other critical broadband service information.

The proposal is based on voluntary labels the FCC previously approved in a 2016 Public Notice, and responds to direction in the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act for the FCC to require providers to create consumer-friendly labels with information about their broadband services. Comment is specifically sought on how consumers evaluate broadband service plans and whether the 2016 labels will assist consumers with the purchase process; whether the 2016 labels should be updated in terms of content and format; and whether the FCC should provide new guidance about where broadband providers must display such labels. Comment and reply comment deadlines have not yet been established.

A snippet from the 2016 label is as follows:

Broadband Facts
Fixed broadband consumer disclosure

Choose Your Service Data Plan for [provide name of speed tier offered]

Monthly charge for month-to-month plan
[provide non-promotional price of stand-alone broadband service on a month-to-month basis] $[ ]

Monthly charge for [ ] contract plan
[identify length of available long-term contracts — provide one row for each available option; provide price of stand-alone broadband service available under each long-term contract option] $[ ]

Click here for other pricing options including promotions and options bundled with other services, like cable television and wireless services.

Other Charges and Terms

Data included with monthly charge
[if applicable, identify the monthly data allowance associated with this plan] [ ]GB

Charges for additional data usage — [provide increment of additional data, e.g., “each additional 50GB”; if applicable, identify additional charges if the monthly data allowance is exceeded] $[ ]

Categories of information not shown in the snippet include Government Taxes, Performance, Network Management, Privacy, and Complaints or Inquiries. The full 2016 label, as well as the 2016 label for wireless broadband, can be found here.

BloostonLaw Contact: Sal Taillefer.

Law and Regulation

FCC Eliminates White Space Push Requirement, Seeks Comment on Re-Check Interval

On January 26, the FCC adopted its the Second Order on Reconsideration, Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, and Order in its proceeding on operations in the White Spaces bands (ET Docket Nos. 04-186, 14-165). This item was originally scheduled to be considered at the January 27 Open Meeting, but was adopted ahead of schedule and removed from the agenda.

Specifically, the FCC eliminated the requirement for white space databases to push changes in channel availability to fixed and personal portable white space devices established in the White Spaces Order, and instead require that fixed and personal/portable devices that operate on TV channels must re-check the database on a more frequent basis than under the current rules, except for narrowband devices. In the Further Notice, the FCC seeks comment on the appropriate database re-check interval for narrowband and mobile white space devices that were authorized by the FCC in its 2020 White Spaces Report and Order. Comment and reply comment dates are not yet established.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast and Cary Mitchell.

FCC Upholds Fine for Jammer Use to Block Employee’s Cell Phones

On January 27, the FCC upheld a $22,000 fine for use of a signal jammer by Ravi’s Import Warehouse in Dallas, Texas. According to a Press Release, the FCC started an investigation with a site visit and interview by an FCC agent from the Dallas Field Office following a complaint of interference by AT&T. The company owner confirmed that Ravi’s used a jammer to prevent its employees from using their mobile phones at work. She told the FCC agent she had disposed of the device and was unwilling to retrieve it for the agent or identify where it was. The owner did, however, offer to sell it to the agent, who refused.

Following the investigation, the FCC proposed a fine, sent notice to the company, reviewed its response, including any new information, and then issued a final fine. The company petitioned first for reconsideration, and next for review and a reduction in the fine amount. The FCC adopted a Memorandum Opinion and Order to affirm the fine and order payment.

BloostonLaw Contact: John Prendergast.

FCC Formally Revokes China Unicom Americas’ Section 214 Authority

On January 27, the FCC adopted an Order formally revoking the ability of China Unicom (Americas) Operations Limited to provide domestic interstate and international telecommunications services within the United States. According to a Press Release, the Order on Revocation directs China Unicom Americas to discontinue any domestic or international services that it provides pursuant to its section 214 authority within sixty days following the release of the Order. The Press Release further notes that the FCC’s action was taken based on input from Executive Branch agencies, thorough review of the company’s responses in this proceeding, the public record, and the FCC’s public interest analysis under the law.

Specifically, the FCC found that:

  • China Unicom Americas, a U.S. subsidiary of a Chinese state-owned enterprise, is subject to exploitation, influence, and control by the Chinese government and is highly likely to be forced to comply with Chinese government requests without sufficient legal procedures subject to independent judicial oversight.
  • China Unicom Americas’ ownership and control by the Chinese government raise significant national security and law enforcement risks by providing opportunities for China Unicom Americas, its parent entities, and the Chinese government to access, store, disrupt, and/or misroute U.S. communications, which in turn allows them to engage in espionage and other harmful activities against the United States.
  • China Unicom Americas’ conduct and representations to the FCC and Congress demonstrate a lack of candor, trustworthiness, and reliability that erodes the baseline level of trust that the FCC and other U.S. government agencies require of telecommunications carriers given the critical nature of the provision of telecommunications service in the United States.
  • Mitigation would not address these significant national security and law enforcement concerns.

The Order on Revocation comes after a finding in March 2021 that China Unicom Americas had “failed to dispel serious concerns regarding its retention of its authority to provide telecommunications services in the United States.” The FCC adopted procedures that allowed for China Unicom Americas, the Executive Branch agencies, and the public to present any remaining arguments or evidence in the matter.

BloostonLaw Contacts: Ben Dickens, Gerry Duffy, and Sal Taillefer.


FCC Announces Next Round of RDOF Funding

On January 28, alongside its announcement of new monitoring and compliance procedures, the FCC announced that it is ready to authorize more than $1.2 billion through the Rural Digital Opportunity Fund to fund new broadband deployments in 32 states. According to a Press Release, this is the largest funding round to date, with funding going to 23 broadband providers to bring broadband service to over 1 million locations.

To be authorized to receive the total 10-year support amounts announced in this round of funding, the long-form applicants identified are required to submit acceptable irrevocable stand-by letter(s) of credit and Bankruptcy Code opinion letter(s) from their legal counsel for each state where they have winning bids that are ready to be authorized in accordance with the instructions provided below by the applicable deadline – prior to 6:00 p.m. ET on February 11, 2022.

A list of the winning bidders in this funding round can be found here. For a list of RDOF providers and funding amounts by state, see

Video Recording of October 2021 Virtual Field Hearing on Communications Resiliency Now Available

On February 1, the FCC announced that a video recording of the October 26, 2021 virtual field hearing on improving the resiliency and recovery of communications networks during disasters is now available on the FCC’s YouTube Channel. According to a Press Release, “[t]he hearing, which was conducted during the Commission’s Open Commission Meeting, may inform Commission recommendations and actions to bolster communications reliability.”


MARCH 1: COPYRIGHT STATEMENT OF ACCOUNT FORM FOR CABLE COMPANIES. This form, plus royalty payment for the second half of last year, is due March 1. The form covers the period July 1 to December 31, and is due to be mailed directly to cable TV operators by the Library of Congress’ Copyright Office.

BloostonLaw Contact: Gerry Duffy.

MARCH 1: CPNI ANNUAL CERTIFICATION. Carriers should modify (as necessary) and complete their “Annual Certification of CPNI Compliance” for this year. The certification must be filed with the FCC by March 1. Note that the annual certification should include the following three required Exhibits: (a) a detailed Statement Explaining How The Company’s Operating Procedures Ensure Compliance With The FCC’S CPNI Rules to reflect the Company’s policies and information; (b) a Statement of Actions Taken Against Data Brokers; and (c) a Summary of Customer Complaints Regarding Unauthorized Release of CPNI. A company officer with personal knowledge that the company has established operating procedures adequate to ensure compliance with the rules must execute the Certification, place a copy of the Certification and accompanying Exhibits in the Company’s CPNI Compliance Records, and file the certification with the FCC in the correct fashion. Our clients can forward the original to BloostonLaw in time for the firm to make the filing with the FCC by March 1, if desired. BloostonLaw is prepared to help our clients meet this requirement, which we expect will be strictly enforced, by assisting with preparation of their certification filing; reviewing the filing to make sure that the required showings are made; filing the certification with the FCC, and obtaining a proof-of-filing copy for your records. Clients interested in obtaining BloostonLaw's CPNI compliance manual should contact the firm for more information. Note: If you file the CPNI certification, you must also file the FCC Form 499-A Telecom Reporting Worksheet by April 1.

BloostonLaw contacts: Gerry Duffy and Sal Taillefer.

MARCH 1: FCC FORM 477, LOCAL COMPETITION & BROADBAND REPORTING FORM. This annual form is due March 1 and September 1 annually. The FCC requires facilities-based wired, terrestrial fixed wireless, and satellite broadband service providers to report on FCC Form 477 the number of broadband subscribers they have in each census tract they serve. The Census Bureau changed the boundaries of some census tracts as part of the 2010 Census.

Specifically, three types of entities must file this form:

  1. Facilities-based Providers of Broadband Connections to End User Locations: Entities that are facilities-based providers of broadband connections — which are wired “lines” or wireless “channels” that enable the end user to receive information from and/or send information to the Internet at information transfer rates exceeding 200 kbps in at least one direction — must complete and file the applicable portions of this form for each state in which the entity provides one or more such connections to end user locations. For the purposes of Form 477, an entity is a “facilities-based” provider of broadband connections to end user locations if it owns the portion of the physical facility that terminates at the end user location, if it obtains unbundled network elements (UNEs), special access lines, or other leased facilities that terminate at the end user location and provisions/equips them as broadband, or if it provisions/equips a broadband wireless channel to the end user location over licensed or unlicensed spectrum. Such entities include incumbent and competitive local exchange carriers (LECs), cable system operators, fixed wireless service providers (including “wireless ISPs”), terrestrial and satellite mobile wireless service providers, BRS providers, electric utilities, municipalities, and other entities. (Such entities do not include equipment suppliers unless the equipment supplier uses the equipment to provision a broadband connection that it offers to the public for sale. Such entities also do not include providers of fixed wireless services (e.g., “Wi-Fi” and other wireless ethernet, or wireless local area network, applications) that only enable local distribution and sharing of a premises broadband facility.)
  2. Providers of Wired or Fixed Wireless Local Telephone Services: Incumbent and competitive LECs must complete and file the applicable portions of the form for each state in which they provide local exchange service to one or more end user customers (which may include “dial-up” ISPs).
  3. Providers of Mobile Telephony Services: Facilities-based providers of mobile telephony services must complete and file the applicable portions of this form for each state in which they serve one or more mobile telephony subscribers. A mobile telephony service is a real-time, two-way switched voice service that is interconnected with the public switched network using an in-network switching facility that enables the provider to reuse frequencies and accomplish seamless handoff of subscriber calls. A mobile telephony service provider is considered “facilities-based” if it serves a subscriber using spectrum for which the entity holds a license that it manages, or for which it has obtained the right to use via lease or other arrangement with a Band Manager.

BloostonLaw contacts: Ben Dickens, Gerry Duffy, and Sal Taillefer.

MARCH 1: HUBB LOCATION DATA FILING AND CERTIFICATION. Carriers participating in modernized Connect America Fund (CAF) programs with defined broadband buildout obligations have until March 1 of each year to file deployment data with USAC's High Cost Universal Broadband (HUBB) portal showing where they built out mass-market, high-speed Internet service in the previous calendar year. Carriers that have no locations to upload must certify this fact in the HUBB. Affected programs include: CAF Phase II Model; Alternative Connect America Cost Model (Original A-CAM) and Revised ACAM; ACAM II; Connect America Fund Broadband Loop Support (CAF BLS); Rural Broadband Experiments (RBE); Alaska Plan (other than carriers with individualized performance plans that only require them to maintain service at existing levels); CAF Phase II Auction; and Rural Digital Opportunity Fund (RDOF).

Carriers with 2021 deployment milestones must also complete milestone certifications as part of the annual HUBB filing and will face verification reviews tied to those milestones. Carriers subject to defined deployment milestones must notify the FCC and USAC, and relevant state, U.S. Territory or Tribal governments if applicable, within 10 business days after the applicable deadline if they have failed to meet a milestone. Carriers that miss milestones face increased reporting obligations and potential loss of support.

BloostonLaw attorneys have successfully assisted clients in uploading and certifying their HUBB location data, as well as obtain petitions for waiver of the FCC’s rules where necessary.

BloostonLaw Contact: Sal Taillefer.

APRIL 1: FCC FORM 499-A, TELECOMMUNICATIONS REPORTING WORKSHEET. This form must be filed by all contributors to the Universal Service Fund (USF) sup-port mechanisms, the Telecommunications Relay Service (TRS) Fund, the cost recovery mechanism for the North American Numbering Plan Administration (NANPA), and the shared costs of local number portability (LNP). Contributors include every telecommunications carrier that provides interstate, intrastate, and international telecommunications, and certain other entities that provide interstate telecommunications for a fee. Even common carriers that qualify for the de minimis exemption must file Form 499-A. Entities whose universal service contributions will be less than $10,000 qualify for the de minimis exemption. De minimis entities do not have to file the quarterly report (FCC Form 499-Q), which was due February 1, and will again be due May 1. Form 499-Q relates to universal and LNP mechanisms. Form 499-A relates to all of these mechanisms and, hence, applies to all providers of interstate, intrastate, and international telecommunications services. Form 499-A contains revenue information for January 1 through December 31 of the prior calendar year. And Form 499-Q contains revenue information from the prior quarter plus projections for the next quarter. (Note: the revised 499-A and 499-Q forms are now available.) Block 2-B of the Form 499-A requires each carrier to designate an agent in the District of Columbia upon whom all notices, process, orders, and decisions by the FCC may be served on behalf of that carrier in proceedings before the FCC. Carriers receiving this newsletter may specify our law firm as their D.C. agent for service of process using the information in our masthead. There is no charge for this service.

BloostonLaw Contacts: Ben Dickens, and Gerry Duffy.

APRIL 1: ANNUAL ACCESS TO ADVANCED SERVICES CERTIFICATION. All providers of telecommunications services and telecommunications carriers subject to Section 255 of the Telecommunications Act are required to file with the FCC an annual certification that

  1. states the company has procedures in place to meet the recordkeeping requirements of Part 14 of the Rules;
  2. states that the company has in fact kept records for the previous calendar year;
  3. contains contact information for the individual or individuals handling customer complaints under Part 14;
  4. contains contact information for the company’s designated agent; and
  5. is supported by an affidavit or declaration under penalty of perjury signed by an officer of the company.

BloostonLaw Contacts: Gerry Duffy and Sal Taillefer.

  BloostonLaw Private Users Update Vol. 22, No. 1 January 2022  

Manufacturers, Critical Infrastructure Providers and Carriers Should Review Cybersecurity Practices

In light of recent and ongoing world events, the FCC has issued a Public Notice encouraging communications companies to review the Joint Cybersecurity Advisory “Understanding and Mitigating Russian State-Sponsored Cyber Threats to U.S. Critical Infrastructure”, authored by the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and National Security Agency (NSA). A copy of the document can be found at While the FCC’s primary focus is on telecom carriers, this recommendation can apply equally to our critical infrastructure and manufacturing clients, since a cybersecurity breach could have severe consequences — whether it be a theft of intellectual or other significant business property or personally identifiable information, or a breach that cripples your operations.

The Commission is urging companies to take the recommended actions to protect their networks from cyber threats, to detect and notify CISA of cyber threats impacting communications services and infrastructure, and to share threat information with CISA and other industry stakeholders, as appropriate. Concerns have emerged that Russia may seek to engage in cyber-attacks in connection with U.S. objections to Russia’s Ukraine actions.

BloostonLaw Contacts: Ben Dickens, John Prendergast and Richard Rubino

FCC Seeks Comment on RF Standards

The FCC has released its Notice of Proposed Rulemaking which has proposed “targeted” updates to its radio frequency device rules. The proposal would incorporate four new and updated standards that are related to the testing of equipment and accreditation of laboratories that test Radio Frequency (“RF”) devices. Comments will be due 30 days after publication in the Federal Register and Reply Comments will be due 60 days after publication in the Federal Register.

The FCC has limited its proposals to the incorporation by reference of technical standards that are associated with equipment authorization and the recognition of Telecommunication Certification Bodies (TCBs). The four standards subject to these proposals are, as follows:

Standard Standard being replaced Proposed affected rule sections Summary of rationale for proposed change
C63.25.1:2018 N/A New standard 2.910
Consolidates qualification and validation procedures for radiated test sites intended for use over various frequency ranges. The C63.25.1 standard included in this proposal covers 1 to 18 GHz.
C63.10:2020 C63.10:2013 15.31
Addresses changes in technology, such as: frequency hopping spread spectrum procedures were updated to ensure complete on and off times are correctly considered; digital transmission system (DTS) and unlicensed national information infrastructure (U-NII) device procedures were updated to align with the latest FCC KDB guidance; millimeter wave measurement procedures were updated; TV White Space test methods were added to the standard.
ISO/IEC 17011:2017 17011:2004 2.910
Provides more comprehensive requirements for accreditation bodies, in particular incorporation of CASCO common elements in clauses on impartiality, confidentiality, complaints and appeal, and management system; recognition of proficiency testing as an accreditation activity; addition of new definitions; introduction of the concept of risk; and incorporation of competence criteria in the document, including an informative annex on knowledge and skills.
ISO/IEC 17025:2017 17025:2005 2.910
Provides more comprehensive requirements for testing and calibration labs. In addition to adding a definition of “laboratory,” the new version replaces certain prescriptive requirements with performance-based requirements and allows for greater flexibility in satisfying the standard’s requirements for processes, procedures, documented information, and organizational responsibilities.

The FCC is also seeking comment on whether it should consider any additional conforming or administrative updates to its rules as well as whether other rule modifications (including updating other standards currently referenced in the rules or incorporating by reference additional standards not currently referenced in the rules) would be necessary to give full effect to these proposals. This rulemaking is part of the FCC’s ongoing effort to update its RF rules. Previously, the FCC eliminated many of the categorical exemptions that benefited private radio users and wireless carriers, and replaced those categorical exemptions with more complex testing, measurement and/or calculation requirements in order to ensure that proposed wireless radio facilities do not cause harmful radiation, either alone or in combination with other operations at a particular antenna site. Unlike prior FCC actions, these proposed rules will focus more on the equipment compliance.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast, Richard Rubino and Cary Mitchell

Chairwoman Rosenworcel Circulates New Data Breach Reporting Proposal

The FCC has issued a News Release announcing the circulation of FCC Chairwoman Jessica Rosenworcel’s draft Data Breach Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (“NPRM”) among the other FCC commissioners. The proposed NPRM would “begin the process of strengthening the Commission’s rules for notifying customers and federal law enforcement of breaches of customer proprietary network information (CPNI) …” and “…better align the Commission’s rules with recent developments in federal and state data breach laws covering other sectors.”

According to the Press Release, the proposal outlines several updates to current FCC rules addressing telecommunications carriers’ breach notification requirements. These include:

  • Eliminating the current seven business day mandatory waiting period for notifying customers of a breach;
  • Expanding customer protections by requiring notification of inadvertent breaches; and
  • Requiring carriers to notify the Commission of all reportable breaches in addition to the FBI and U.S. Secret Service.

The draft NPRM also seeks comment on whether the Commission should require customer breach notices to include specific categories of information to help ensure they contain actionable information useful to the consumer, and proposes to make consistent revisions to the Commission’s telecommunications relay services (TRS) data breach reporting rule.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast, Richard Rubino, Sal Taillefer and Cary Mitchell

President Biden Renominates Sohn for FCC

On January 4, multiple news outlets reported that President Biden has renominated Gigi Sohn to serve on the FCC. Reports, such as Bloomberg Law, note the renomination is despite “broad Republican opposition.” According to Bloomberg, “Republicans argued Sohn would pursue heavy-handed regulations at the agency. They also criticized Sohn’s past remarks denouncing conservative media outlets. Some GOP senators called on Biden to withdraw her nomination.”

As we reported in a previous edition of the Private User Update, Sohn was originally nominated in October alongside now-Chairwoman Jessica Rosenworcel. Her nomination technically expired because Congress’s session ended at the end of the year without confirmation of Sohn’s nomination. This required the president to re-nominate Sohn as a Commissioner.

The October 26, 2021 White House press release announcing Sohn’s original nomination provided the following background:

Gigi B. Sohn is a Distinguished Fellow at the Georgetown Law Institute for Technology Law & Policy and a Benton Senior Fellow and Public Advocate. Gigi is one of the nation’s leading public advocates for open, affordable, and democratic communications networks. For over thirty years, Gigi has worked to defend and preserve the fundamental competition and innovation policies that have made broadband Internet access more ubiquitous, competitive, affordable, open, and protective of user privacy. If she is confirmed, Gigi would be the first openly LGBTIQ+ Commissioner in the history of the FCC.

BloostonLaw Contacts: Ben Dickens, Gerry Duffy, and John Prendergast

NWCC Raising Concerns About LPTV Station Interference to Private Land Mobile Operations

The National Wireless Communications Council (formerly known as Land Mobile Communications Council) is notifying the FCC that a Riverside, California low power television (LPTV) station is in violation of FCC Rule Section 74.709(a), which identifies 13 markets where LPTV stations must protect incumbent land mobile stations from harmful interference. One of these markets is spectrum starved Los Angeles, California where the protected channels are UHF channels 14, 16 and 20.

In this particular case, NWCC notes that the LPTV station is expected to cause harmful interference to numerous public safety, critical infrastructure and industrial business operations that utilize UHF spectrum associated with Channel 20 in the greater Los Angeles area. As a result, NWCC plans to seek immediate action to prevent this LPTV station from commencing operations, since its facility will not be compliant with the FCC’s Rules and Regulations.

While this case is an example of the ongoing communications that NWCC and its member frequency advisory coordinators have had with the FCC’s wireless and media bureau staff over the past year due to concerns of harmful interference from DTV stations to land mobile operations, the difference here is that there is an actual station that has received a license to operate despite its station not being in compliance with the FCC’s Rules.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast and Richard Rubino

FCC Affirms $22,000 Fine for Illegal Use of Signal Jamming Equipment

The FCC has upheld a $22,000 fine proposed by the Enforcement Bureau against Ravi’s Import Warehouse, Inc. (Ravi’s), for operating a cellular phone jammer in its commercial establishment in Dallas, Texas, in willful violation of the Communications Act. The penalty included an upward adjustment for egregious behavior, namely, attempting to sell the signal jammer in question to an FCC field agent.

As we reported in a prior edition of the Private User Update, an agent from the FCC’s Dallas Field Office (Dallas Office) responded to a complaint from an AT&T representative asserting that an AT&T base station was receiving interference from what appeared to be a signal jammer. Ravi’s owner admitted to the FCC field agent that Ravi’s used a signal jammer as a means of preventing its employees from using mobile phones while at work, and that the Company had been warned by an AT&T representative that use of the jammer was illegal. The owner further stated that she disposed of the jammer shortly before the agent’s arrival, and refused to voluntarily retrieve and surrender the device to the agent or to identify the specific dumpster in which she disposed of the device. Instead, the owner offered to sell the signal jammer to the agent. The agent declined the offer and issued a Notice of Unlicensed Radio Operation informing Ravi’s that the operation of a signal jammer is illegal. According to the Forfeiture Order, the $22,000 included a $5,000 upward adjustment based on the egregiousness of the owner’s attempt to sell the jamming device to the agent.

We caution our clients that signal jammers may not be used in the United States under any circumstances. Federal law states that no one shall “willfully or maliciously interfere with or cause any interference to any radio communications of any station licensed or authorized by or under this chapter or operated by the United States Government.” Moreover, signal jammers cannot be certified or authorized for use in the United States, since their primary purpose is to block or interfere with authorized communications. It is important to note that the prohibition against signal jammers applies not only to their use, but also to the manufacturer, importation, sale, offer for sale or shipping of signal jamming equipment. Violations can result in severe penalties, including, but not limited to fines and potential third-party civil liability.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast and Richard Rubino

FCC Orders Land Owners to Dismantle Tower They Don’t Own

The FCC has taken the unusual step of ordering land owners to dismantle an unlighted 374-foot antenna tower in Pine Bluff, Arkansas under Section 303(q) of the Communications Act (the Act), which authorizes the FCC (a) to mandate obstruction marking and lighting in circumstances where the Commission determines that a tower could otherwise be a hazard to air navigation or (b) to order the tower owner to dismantle or remove an antenna tower when the FAA has determined that there is a reasonable possibility that the tower could be a menace to air navigation.

The subject tower was constructed to support an FM-broadcast radio station. The FCC issued an antenna structure registration for the tower which required the tower owner to mark and light the tower. The owner of the tower ceased operation a number of years ago and neither the tower owner nor the FM broadcast licensee is still in existence. Additionally, no payments for the easement that permitted the construction of the tower have apparently been received by the land owners. The FCC’s investigation indicates that the tower has not been lighted since at least November 2005 and in 2021, the FAA issued a Determination letter recommending that the FCC take appropriate action to ensure that the tower is dismantled since, in its present condition, the tower constitutes a menace to aviation.

Because of the safety risk posed antenna tower, the FCC determined that it could not wait for the Arkansas courts to resolve any property title issues regarding the ownership of the tower. As a result, and in order to promptly mitigate a significant safety risk to aviation and the general public, the FCC has determined, for purposes of Section 303(q) of the Act that the land owners “presently possess the [antenna structure] for the limited purposes of” enforcing the Commission’s tower safety regulations. Additionally, to avoid any potential litigation, the FCC stated that any person having a remaining interest in the antenna structure would likewise be subject to its order.

This case illustrates the importance of ensuring the proper maintenance of antenna towers, even if no longer in use. The FCC’s rules make it clear that there is a continuing obligation to ensure that obstruction marking and lighting is maintained on all towers, whether in use or not. That this tower was allowed to stand unlit for over 15 years is unusual, and we anticipate that there would have been substantial fines if the actual tower owners were still in existence. This case also illustrates the need for land owners that allow towers on their properties to ensure that the tenant strictly abides by applicable FCC regulations, including an obligation to dismantle a tower if the tenant is going out of business.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast and Richard Rubino

Law Offices Of
Blooston, Mordkofsky, Dickens,
Duffy & Prendergast, LLP

2120 L St. NW, Suite 300
Washington, D.C. 20037
(202) 659-0830
(202) 828-5568 (fax)


Benjamin H. Dickens, Jr., 202-828-5510,
Gerard J. Duffy, 202-828-5528,
John A. Prendergast, 202-828-5540,
Richard D. Rubino, 202-828-5519,
Mary J. Sisak, 202-828-5554,
D. Cary Mitchell, 202-828-5538,
Salvatore Taillefer, Jr., 202-828-5562,

This newsletter is not intended to provide legal advice. Those interested in more information should contact the firm.

Calendar At-a-Glance

Feb. 14 – Reply comments on SIP Code Usage for Call Blocking are due.
Feb. 17 – Reply comments are due on Report on the Future of USF.

Mar. 1 – Copyright Statement of Account Form for cable companies is due.
Mar. 1 – Annual CPNI Certification is due.
Mar. 1 – FCC Form 477 (Local Competition & Broadband Reporting) is due.
Mar. 1 – Annual HUBB Deployment Report is due.
Mar. 1 – Annual 700 MHz Licensee Report is due.
Mar. 17 – Comments are due on Report on the Future of USF.
Mar. 31 – FCC Form 525 (Delayed Phasedown CETC Line Counts) is due.
Mar. 31 – FCC Form 508 (ICLS Projected Annual Common Line Requirement) is due.
Mar. 31 – FCC Form 507 (Universal Service Line Count – CAF BLS) is due.
Mar. 31 – COVID Lifeline waivers set to expire.

Apr. 1 – FCC Form 499-A (Annual Telecommunications Reporting Worksheet) is due.
Apr. 1 – Annual Accessibility Certification is due.

Complete Technical Services for the Communications and Electronics Industries

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Technician's Corner

The LONGEST Certified HDMI 2.1 Cable I've (by Vincent Teoh) Tested to Pass 4K@120Hz (48Gbps)

HDTVTest January 21, 2022
Review of the 20-metre Phoossno HDMI 2.1 cable (8K Gen2 version), which is a certified Ultra High Speed HDMI cable capable of transmitting 48Gbps FRL bandwidth, dynamic HDR, VRR, eARC & other HDMI 2.1 features. We used the HDMI Cable Certification app to verify its authenticity, as well as a Denon X2700H receiver & an LG C9 (with 48Gbps SoC) to test its HDMI 2.1 bandwidth.

Source: YouTube  


“Over The Hill”

New West Records
From the new album 'The Eclipse Sessions,'
Directed by Michael Kessler

Music in this video  
Song “Over the Hill”
Artist John Hiatt
Album “Over the Hill”
Licensed to YouTube by [Merlin] Redeye Distribution (on behalf of New West Records); AMRA, Warner Chappell, Kobalt Music Publishing, LatinAutorPerf, and 3 Music Rights Societies


Source: YouTube  

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