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Paging company startup guide and marketing plan:

An informal Marketing Plan for starting a new radio paging company.

Un Plan de Mercadeo informal para una nueva compañía de radio buscapersonas. Um Planejamento de Marketing informal para uma companhia nova de rádio paging.
A questionnaire to help you get started in the paging business: English questionnaire. Español cuestionario. Português questionário.
Programming strategies for the Advisor™ and other pagers. This shows you how to plan for individual codes, group calls, and information services:

Motorola Advisor Pager
Motorola ADVISOR
This pager is no longer in production.

The Advisor™ Message Receiver and POCSAG Coding Rules, with suggestions for programming capcodes: Individual Codes, Group Codes, and Mail Drop Codes (information services). El Receptor de Mensajes Advisor ™ con reglas de codificación POCSAG y sugerencias para la programación de capcodes : Llamadas Individuales, Llamadas de Grupo, y el Buzón de Correspondencia (servicios de información). Receptor de mensagens Advisor ™ regras de codificação POCSAG e sugestões para programação de capcodes : códigos individuais, códigos em grupos, e códigos de correio eletrônico (serviços de informação).
A brief description of the POCSAG Paging Protocol: English POCSAG. Español POCSAG. Português POCSAG.
More Wireless Topics English Language
The New Wheel of Fortune: The New Wheel of Fortune slide show.

My latest presentation: This is it! This is where I see the paging business going, and I think that most of my colleagues agree. It's not just Paging anymore! In spite of recent unfortunate developments in the wireless industry, wireless data services of all types have a good chance of success.

For over ten years we have been trying to tell the public that it's Wireless Messaging, or Wireless Data not Paging . It looks like it is really catching on now with two-way technology. Want to know what's really going to be hot? Wireless e-mail using the new Motorola T900 two-way pager! You heard it first here. The original PowerPoint presentation can be downloaded by clicking on this link.

How to design paging systems: Wireless Application Development A a very good paper by Motorola. This is a "PDF" file and requires the Adobe Acrobat Reader.
Why ReFLEX™ is better:

T900 2-Way image
Motorola Talkabout®
T900 2-way pager

This is a PowerPoint slide presentation by Allan Angus, PE, of WebLink Wireless in Dallas, Texas. It addresses the number one hot topic in the wireless industry today. Why is ReFLEX™ better ? This is a "must read" paper for everyone wanting to be up-to-date on the latest information about wireless messaging protocols. Allan Angus is recognized by many as the industry's leading wireless technologist. He is certainly the one that I go to frequently with my questions, which he always patiently answers.

A very well written paper—126 pages long. It takes a while to download, but it's worth the wait.

Here is another great whitepaper about the ReFLEX™ protocol written by the Sag Harbor Consulting Group for Arch Wireless. It is available on the Arch web site at: This is a "PDF" file and requires the Adobe Acrobat Reader.

Ericsson's ReFLEX vs. Mobitex paper takes the opposing view that Mobitex is better than ReFLEX:

(To be fair, I report both sides of issues whenever possible.)

ReFLEX vs. Mobitex

ReFLEX vs. Mobitex Please note that these papers, debating the merits of Mobitex and ReFLEX, are out of date now. They are approximately eight years old. Remember that this is 2008 and we are paying over $3 dollars for a gallon of gas and $10 for a good hamburger and fries — so factor that into any pricing that you see. Comments and/or corrections are welcome.

Paging Products

Code Plan Guide

National Service Technician's Guide

This valuable reference about many analog paging codes, is also called the "National Service Technician's Guide." It is a very large (18.8 MB) Adobe Acrobat PDF file—so it may take quite a while to download—depending on the speed of your Internet connection.

Glossary of terms and primer on wireless industry jargon:

Glossary of Wireless Terms

This Glossary of Wireless Terms is a work in progress. Some of these definitions are mine and some of them, I shamelessly copied from other sites on the Internet. If anyone has an objection to this, please let me know. You are welcome to suggest corrections or additions.

Wireless telemetry equipment:

CreataLink® 2XT

CreataLink® 2XT This two-way ReFLEX 25 telemetry device was originally designed and manufactured by Motorola.

ReFLEX25™ two-way paging:


The definitive commercial paper on ReFLEX25™ by Allan Angus and Ross Buckenham. This is a "PDF" file and requires the Adobe Acrobat Reader.

A Service Bureau Monitoring & Control Solution:

Remote Monitoring with 2-Way Paging

This is an excellent article by Marvin T. Serhan.


Highly recommended.

Two-way Paging Network Description: " Description of a Narrowband NPCS Network " by Allan Angus, PE, WebLink Wireless, Dallas, Texas. This is a "PDF" file and requires the Adobe Acrobat Reader.
A comparison of GSM SMS, GPRS, and ReFLEX v2.7 networks: " Figures of Merit for the Capacity of Wireless Messaging Networks " by Allan Angus, PE, WebLink Wireless, Dallas, Texas. This is a "PDF" file and requires the Adobe Acrobat Reader.
Why NPCS is better: A comparison of ReFLEX25™ and GSM networks for the transfer of data. "Short Message Transfer in Narrowband and Broadband PCS " by Allan Angus, PE, WebLink Wireless, Dallas, Texas. This is a "PDF" file and requires the Adobe Acrobat Reader.
Proposal for ReFLEX™ and IEEE 802.11 If you are interested in Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11 a, b, g, etc.) and paging as well, I would like to recommend a white paper by my friend Allan Angus (PE, TVP Architecture at WebLink Wireless). This paper identifies a major problem in Wi-Fi communications and recommends an elegant solution.
An introduction to two-way paging:

Two-Way Paging

Here is an interesting document that includes an introduction two-way technology, and a summary of features. It is a little out-of-date now but still quite informative.

The PURC base station:

The PURC Base Station

The Paging Universal Remote Control PURC base station was Motorola's first transmitters capable of simulcast operation.

The NUCLEUS base station:

The Nucleus Base Station

A description of the NECLEUS base station which replaced the PURC.

The C-Net remote control:

C-Net Remote Control

A description of how the C-Net remote control works by Motorola.

The PURC remote control:

PURC Tone Remote Control

A description of how the PURC Tone Remote Control (TRC) worked, by Motorola.

Paging System Basics: A (one-way) Radio Paging System Overview by Motorola.
Motorola-Unipage paging terminal:

Unipage Terminal

This is a very comprehensive description of the Unipage paging terminal, written after Motorola bought the company. It is a very large file and is recommended for downloading by those who have a fast Internet connection.

The various versions of two-way paging:

Versions of Two-Way Paging

Do you know the difference between one-and-a-half-way paging, and "full" two-way paging.? Here is a brief description of the different versions of two-way paging.

The original Wheel of Fortune:

wheel of fortune graphic

The Wheel of Fortune

The Wheel of Fortune concept explains how to increase revenue in a paging business by offering a multiplicity of services, some of which operate in off-peak time so as to not degrade the paging system's efficiency during regular traffic hours. This version is a little dated. Please also see: The New Wheel of Fortune for a more up-to-date revision.

I created this presentation while training my manager at Motorola on all the things you can do with a paging system (circa 1991). The concepts are mine; he thought of the title. It later became very popular, and many paging operators around the world continue to use these ideas in their businesses today.

Is Paging in trouble?

You must read this if you are interested in paging:

"Paging's Future" This article was reprinted in 5 or 6 newsletters when I first published it in February 1997. I still stand behind the statement that paging is not dying. One-way paging is certainly diminishing, but two-way paging is really coming on strong. The overall result will be tremendous growth as shown on the forecast immediately below from DLJ.
  • Update midyear 2001—two-way is taking off like a rocket! There are over one million ReFLEX™ devices in use and half of them are on WebLink's system!
  • Update late 2001—the rocket is crashing. Let's hope there's something left when it hits bottom.
  • Update late 2002—it appears that the salvation of the paging industry may be Telemetry and Wireless Data.
U.S. paging forecast: This is by Donaldson, Lufkin, & Jenrette, 1999. It is sad that paging took a downturn, but I am leaving this forecast here to show how bright the future looked in 1999. [very obsolete]
The Latin American paging market: Some thoughts on the Market Outlook in Latin America. This one is a little old now, but still interesting.
Two-way voice paging: I wrote this when Two-way Voice was just starting.

What's Going to Happen with Two-way Voice Paging?

A mathematical analysis of the POCSAG paging protocol: POCSAG System Capacity Analysis.
CCIR Recommendation 584 - The POCSAG protocol: The complete POCSAG specification: Radio Paging Code No. 1 , in its original form.
The recommendation for the POCSAG protocol: The original recommendation of the POCSAG committee to the CCIR: Included here for its historical value only.
The alphanumeric paging entry protocol: I received a request for the Alphanumeric Entry Protocol , so I have included here. It is known as "TAP" (Telocator Alphanumeric Entry), "PET" (Personal Entry Terminal) and sometimes as "iXO" after one of the first companies to manufacture a small alphanumeric entry device using this protocol. All three names refer to the same protocol. This is not the official PCIA version, but it works for basic alpha-entry programs.

A correction was posted here on 3-18-02 giving credit for inventing this protocol to Mike Suchoff. Evidently the previous story, as told to me by a friend, was erroneous—sorry Mike.

FLEX decoding articles:

Here is a very interesting whitepaper written by David Ruimy Gonzales—an engineer at Motorola—on FLEX™ Decoding.

Here is a very good MSEE Thesis written on FLEX™ decoding by Scott Lindsey McCulley.

Words from the Guru
on FLEX™ and bandwidth:

guru graphic
Guest writer: The Guru Speaks on FLEX™ and Bandwidth.

By His Divine Grace, Swami Orno Grafutti.

It's healthy to laugh once in a while.

FLEX, ReFLEX, and InFLEXion are trademarks or registered trademarks of Motorola, Inc.

CreataLink is a trademark of SmartSynch Communications Corp.

Great paging people:


Some of the great people in the paging industry that I have had the privilege to meet.

A reference paper on paging protocols:

Paging Protocol Reference Paper

This is an interesting and comprehensive paper by Jay Moskowitz explaining most of the various protocols used in paging and wireless messaging. It includes Input Protocols, Inter-System and Intra-System Protocols, Transmitter Control Protocols, Pager Protocols, and Host Computer Protocols. This is the best article on paging protocols that I have been able to find.

I have worked with and for Jay Moskowitz a couple of times in my career. He was the founder of RTS Wireless , Senior VP of Engineering for Spectrum Communications and Electronics Inc. , and creator of Tickertec™, a 1977 stock market alerting system that was eventually extended for the generation of stock market alerts to text pagers.



FLEX Simulcasting

High-speed Paging

FLEX Simulcasting

These are the two best engineering whitepapers that I know of — about the complex issues of high-speed-digital paging.

The first one FLEX at 6400 bit/s” was written by my friend and colleague, Allan Angus, PE. (He patiently taught me a lot about Paging.). He was the senior technologist and system architect at PageMart/WebLink. PageMart Wireless later became WebLink Wireless and then was acquired by Metrocall. Arch and Metrocall merged and then became USA Mobility.

The companion paper to this one is: “Pitfalls on the way to high speed paging from the service provider’s perspective”, by Selwyn E. Hill, who was a senior RF engineer at PageMart/WebLink and who also patiently taught me a lot about Paging.

Two-Way Directory: Status Report and Directory of Two-way Pagers and Telemetry Modules. [obsolete]
First Responder Whitepaper Fully Interoperable First Responder Alerting System Based on ReFLEX Two-Way Messaging Technology by Barrett M. Kanne Founder and President TGA Technologies, Inc. Norcross, GA. Highly recommended reading. (September 2004)
US Paging Market Size:

This is a short report on the estimated total number of units in service (UIS) in the US public-subscriber Paging market . It is based on publicly available information with my estimates added (and a little help from my friends). UPDATED FOR THE END OF 2005

Here is my "best guess" for the right arrow Total US Paging Market left arrow both the public and private markets.

UPDATED FOR Q1 2010 in May 2010.

This is largely based on USA Mobility's Quarterly Operating Results as found on their Investor Relations web site.

Homeland Security: Wireless Messaging for Homeland Security , Using Narrowband PCS for Improved Communication During Emergencies, by Dr. Peter Kapsales. (March 2004)
Homeland Security: An Improved Alerting Solution for Public Safety by Jim Weichman.
N-PCS Alerting for First Responders:

N-PCS Alerting ReFLEX, RXP, and First Responders by James Dabbs. After it finishes downloading, keep clicking your mouse to advance through the presentation. Broadband Internet connection recommended.

Asset Tracking: SLIDES left arrow After it finishes downloading, keep clicking your mouse to advance through the presentation. Broadband Internet connection highly recommended. The author is Allan Angus, CTO of TRACE Technologies.
ReFLEX for first responders: The ReFLEX™ Advantage In Homeland Security/First Responder Applications by Ron Mercer Version 2.0—December 5, 2005
Paging in times of crises, prompted by hurricane Katrina USA Mobility, Inc. Mission Critical Paging and Messaging Capabilities 9-21-05
Excellent Public Alerting Paper by Infostream in Australia

November 2005, White Paper, by Infostream: Paging As A Platform For Public Safety Response

Robert Edwards
Respected Paging Pioneer,
Dies At Age 85
A tribute to one of the pioneers of paging. Bob Edwards, often referred to as the "father of paging" was a genuinely nice guy, a man dedicated to his family, and a caring human being.
Comments on NPRM EB Docket No. 06-119 Independent Wireless Consultants Brad Dye and Ron Mercer Comment on the FCC's NPRM in response to the Recommendations of the Independent Panel Reviewing the Impact of Hurricane Katrina on Communications Networks.
Simulcasting “The Art and Science of Simulcasting Redux” by Dennis Cameron — one of the prime developers of modern simulcasting — just one of paging's unique strong points. This paper discusses the history and theory of Simulcasting and the new technologies used.
The Paging Family Tree The Paging Family Tree is a work in progress. Anyone having additional information or a correction is welcome to submit it for inclusion in future updates.

Reasons Why left arrow

Paging Equipment Documentation

Paging Documentation Library

This collection of files includes both Marketing and Engineering documentation of Paging Equipment. Several of them are about Motorola two-way paging products and protocols. Click here to enter the Paging Documentation Library.

Froike Biegun

4X4AF — SK

The Technical Genius of the Israeli Secret Service

Ephraim (Froike) Biegun, the former head of the Technical Department in the General Security Services, and founder of Beeper Communications Israel died on Wednesday June 13, 2007 in Tel Aviv, Israel. 1932 — 2007

ReFLEX Tutorial A brief tutorial on the ReFLEX two-way paging protocol, originally published as "TECH TIPS" in the newsletter.
900 MHz FLEX™ Compared To UHF POCSAG A technical paper by Allan Angus, PE. (very good)
Golay Sequential Code

" A Guide To The Golay Sequential Code (GSC) "

Motorola publication: R8-1-67

Decibels and Related Units

dBs and Related Units

Motorola reference publication

R38-4-1 (6D32)

K9IQY Project Page

Brad's Hobby

My latest project is a general coverage radio receiver, tuning from audio frequencies to 30 MHz in one Hertz steps — locked to the GPS constellation. The "dial" is a 24" color monitor connected to a laptop showing a 190 KHz window of the band as a spectrum analyzer. I have been involved with many kinds of radio receivers for over fifty years — amateur, military, and commercial. This modified SDR-IQ is a dream come true. When I was a young ham, I dreamed of the day when I might have a receiver that would read out to one kilocycle (before we used the term Hertz). Now I have assembled one that reads out to one Hertz and is accurate to ± 70 µHertz* — and thanks to GPS — it will maintain this accuracy as long as the GPS satellites keep working.

* Please note µHertz is microhertz not millihertz .

SI multiples for hertz (Hz)
Submultiples   Multiples
Value Symbol Name Value Symbol Name
10 -1 Hz dHz decihertz 10 1 Hz daHz decahertz
10 -2 Hz cHz centihertz 10 2 Hz hHz hectohertz
10 -3 Hz mHz millihertz 10 3 Hz kHz kilohertz
10 -6 Hz µHz microhertz 10 6 Hz MHz megahertz
10 -9 Hz nHz nanohertz 10 9 Hz GHz gigahertz
10 -12 Hz pHz picohertz 10 12 Hz THz terahertz
10 -15 Hz fHz femtohertz 10 15 Hz PHz petahertz
10 -18 Hz aHz attohertz 10 18 Hz EHz exahertz
10 -21 Hz zHz zeptohertz 10 21 Hz ZHz zettahertz
10 -24 Hz yHz yoctohertz 10 24 Hz YHz yottahertz
Common prefixed units are in bold face.

( SI =The International System of Units.)

Source of the Table:
Wikipedia contributors, "Hertz," Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia,
(accessed November 18, 2010).

Technical Stuff

GSM Disaster Relief Report The Role of Mobiles in Disasters and Emergencies
December 2005
A spate of natural disasters and other emergencies during the past two years has prompted new interest in how technology can help enhance our security. This report assesses the impact that the widespread availability of mobile phones has had on the recovery from specific disasters and atrocities, such as the Indian Ocean tsunami, Hurricane Katrina, the summer floods in central Europe, and terrorist attacks in Istanbul and London. (This report was prepared by Enlightenment Economics, a consultancy specialising in the impacts of technology and globalisation.)
London Bombing

London Bombing

“What happened in London on 7 July 2005 could happen at any time, in any city, in any country.”

Report of the 7 July Review Committee .

TNPP History

TNPP History

Part 1 — Version 3.0

By John F. Nagel — August 18, 2011

Hospital Patient Safety


Response Paging

Whitepaper: Critical Alerting in a Hospital Environment

  • Cell Phones?
  • Smart Phones?
  • Wi-Fi?
  • or Response Paging?


  • Availability
    • Cellular System Availability
    • Wi-Fi System Availability
    • Cellular/Wi-Fi Handset Availability
  • Performance
      • Cellular Performance
      • Wi-Fi Performance
  • Distraction and Workflow
  • Response Paging: A Better Solution
      • Response Paging Availability
      • Response Paging Performance
      • Distractions and Workflow

Do you think Paging is obsolete? It is a common misconception that paging technology has been superseded by newer and better means of wireless communication. This is far from the truth. Jim Nelson, President & CEO of Prism-IPX Systems, has written an excellent paper explaining why paging continues to be the right choice for critical messaging.

“Is Paging Going Away?” by Jim Nelson

  • Click here for English.
  • Click here for German. (Berlin Revision: November 8, 2016)
  • Click here for French.

Volunteers needed for translations into other languages.

With the help of Angelo Saccoccia and his team at Swissphone we now have this great report on the health and wellbeing of Paging available in French and German. Let's work together to get this important message circulated to a wider audience. Dr. Dietmar Gollnick and his staff at e*Message in Berlin have contributed some minor but valuable revisions to the German translation.

Why Paging Remains a Critical Aspect

of Healthcare Communications

I have received an excellent article from Marc A. Gineris, Managing General Partner and Founder of Incyte Capital Holdings LLC, “Why Paging Remains a Critical Aspect of Healthcare Communications.”

You may be surprised, as I was, when Marc compares paging to a “tried-and-true” device that we all use and depend on every day to perhaps save our lives. He makes a very good case for the title of his article.

Now when someone asks us “When will paging go away?” we can use Marc's answer to this question — along with the many other advantages to paging technology that have been reported in the newsletter and on this web site. Click here for the article.

“2005 Paging Persons of the Year”

Please note that was no “criteria” for being selected to appear on this Fake Magazine Cover as one of the “2005 Paging Persons of the Year.” The photos were selected from those that I could find on my computer and a few that I found on the Internet. Please don't feel bad or get angry with me if you are involved in Paging and your photo does not appear here. There was no hidden agenda or political motivation involved in this selection—just a fun tribute to some people in the paging business.

Click here (with names).

Click here (w/o names).



By Ira Wiesenfeld, P.E. with additions and updates by Brad Dye

Click Here. August 2021.

Ham Radio Operators

Who read the Newsletter

October 14, 2022

1 Pete Oesterle VE3HOH/W3
2 John Nagel W5EXJ
3 Anthony Hedge KD9BKH
4 Jerry Daugherty W9FS
5 Marshall Sherard KE4ZNR
6 Barry Kanne W4TGA
7 Steve Siegel K3SLS
8 Loren Anderson KEØHZ
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10 Bill Woods N9SVU
11 Paul Sadowski AH6LS & DH6LS
12 Larry Gabriel K4BZY
13 Gary Blinckmann WA2IQC
14 Peter Moncure W4PWM
15 James Petera N8IXP
16 Ed Lyda WA4OEI
17 Brad Dye K9IQY
18 Bill Waugaman WA3OJG
19 Paul DeLong KF4LNB
20 Albert Erdmann KJ4BWW
21 Ken Pearce N4KCD
22 Tim Jones K4MSP / W4FWD (Repeater)
23 Brent Finster K6BEF
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25 Frank Moorman KE5CSP
26 Graham Jones W5AAG
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28 Ira Wiesenfeld WA5GXP
29 John Linko N3RTS
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33 Joe Delio KE8BGH
34 Ken Countess KN2D (ex-WA2MSF)
35 Paul Piccola W5BPP
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39 Helmut Köchler HB9IQJ SK
40 Peter Sturt VK2ZTV
41 Joe Leikhim K4SAT
42 Jay Zebryk W1JRZ
43 Daniel Schürch HB3YES
44 Tom Brieaddy NZ6C
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Brad Dye
P.O. Box 266
Fairfield, IL 62837 USA

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Back To Paging
Still The Most Reliable Wireless Protocol For Emergencies!

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