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Wireless News Aggregation

Friday — August 20, 2021 — Issue No. 972

Welcome Back To

The Wireless
Messaging News

Wireless Messaging News

  • Emergency Radio Communications
  • Wireless Messaging
  • Critical Messaging
  • Two-way Radio
  • Technology
  • Telemetry
  • Science
  • Paging
  • Wi-Fi
wireless logo medium


If you are using a Glenayre Paging Terminal, I recommend that you contact Vaughan Bowden at Easy Solutions about a service contract. Vaughan's service is highly recommended. Tell him Brad sent you.

This Week's Wireless News Headlines

  • Microsoft Outlook will make you think twice before sending your next e-mail
    • Outlook tone detector should spare a few blushes
  • Cable TV Lost 1.1 Million Subscribers Last Quarter. They Went Here.
    • The pace of customer attrition slowed down, but only because fewer people are left to cut the cord.
  • Introducing Horizon Workrooms: Remote Collaboration Reimagined
    • Product Overview
    • Getting Started
    • Safety and Privacy in Workrooms
    • Bringing Workrooms Features to Developers
  • Inside Towers
    • Verizon Explores New Tech for Keeping Data Safe from Hackers
    • Cellular No Stranger to Cyberhacks
  • BloostonLaw Telecom Update
    • RDOF Letter of Credit, Bankruptcy Opinion Due Aug. 27 for Letter Recipients
    • FCC Ordered to Revisit RF Safety Guidelines
    • Winning Bidders for Auction 109 Announced
    • 911 Reliability Certification Portal Open; Filings Due October 15
    • Company Surrenders FCC Authorizations and Pays $24,000 to Settle Unauthorized Transfer of Control Investigation
    • Carriers File Petitions for Waiver of RDOF Default Penalties; Decline to Serve Census Blocks
    • Lumen Announces Deal to Sell ILEC Assets in 20 States
    • Deadlines
    • Calendar At-a-Glance
    • BloostonLaw Contacts
  • Technician's Corner
    • Tower Shadowing
    • Section Three
    • By Ira Wiesenfeld, P.E.
    • “Six Feet Down”
    • By Tuba Skinny


This doesn't mean that nothing is ever published here that mentions a US political party—it just means that the editorial policy of this newsletter is to remain neutral on all political issues. We don't take sides.

About Us

A new issue of the Wireless Messaging Newsletter is posted on the web each week. A notification goes out by e-mail to subscribers on most Fridays around noon central US time. The notification message has a link to the actual newsletter on the web. That way it doesn’t fill up your incoming e-mail account.

There is no charge for subscription and there are no membership restrictions. Readers are a very select group of wireless industry professionals, and include the senior managers of many of the world’s major Paging and Wireless Messaging companies. There is an even mix of operations managers, marketing people, and engineers — so I try to include items of interest to all three groups. It’s all about staying up-to-date with business trends and technology.

I regularly get readers’ comments, so this newsletter has become a community forum for the Paging, and Wireless Messaging communities. You are welcome to contribute your ideas and opinions. Unless otherwise requested, all correspondence addressed to me is subject to publication in the newsletter and on my web site. I am very careful to protect the anonymity of those who request it.

I spend the whole week searching the INTERNET for news that I think may be of interest to you — so you won’t have to. This newsletter is an aggregator — a service that aggregates news from other news sources. You can help our community by sharing any interesting news that you find.

Editorial Policy

Editorial Opinion pieces present only the opinions of the author. They do not necessarily reflect the views of any of advertisers or supporters. This newsletter is independent of any trade association. I don't intend to hurt anyone's feelings, but I do freely express my own opinions.

What happens if you don't advertise? . . . NOTHING!

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How would you like to help support The Wireless Messaging News? Your support is needed. New advertising and donations have fallen off considerably.
A donation through PayPal is easier than writing and mailing a check and it comes through right away.

There is not a lot of news about Paging these days but when anything significant comes out, you will probably see it here. I also cover text messaging to other devices and various articles about related technology.

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Advertiser Index

Easy Solutions  (Vaughan Bowden)
Frank Moorman
IWA Technical Services, Inc.  (Ira Wiesenfeld)
Leavitt Communications  (Phil Leavitt)
Prism-IPX Systems  (Jim Nelson & John Bishop)
Paging & Wireless Network Planners LLC  (Ron Mercer)

Service Monitors and Frequency Standards for Sale

Motorola Service Monitor

IFR Service Monitor

IFR 500A Service Monitor

(Images are typical units, not actual photos of items offered for sale here.)

Qty Item Notes
2 Late IFR 500As  
1 Motorola R 2001D  
4 Motorola R 2400 and 2410A  
5 Motorola R 2600 and R 2660 late S/Ns  
4 Motorola R 1200  
2 Motorola R 2200  
2 Stand-alone Efratom Rubidium Frequency Standards 10 MHz output
1 Telawave model 44 wattmeter Recently calibrated
1 IFR 1000S  
All sold with 7-day ROR (Right of Refusal), recent calibration, operation manual, and accessories.  
Factory carrying cases for each with calibration certificate.  
Many parts and accessories  

Frank Moorman animated left arrow

(254) 596-1124

Calibration and Repair (NIST 17025)
Upgrades: We can add the FE 5680A 10 MHz rubidium clock to your unit. Small unit fits into the well in the battery compartment — making it a world standard accuracy unit that never needs to be frequency calibrated.
Please inquire by telephone or e-mail.
Most Service Monitor Accessories in stock.

Microsoft Outlook will make you think twice before sending your next e-mail

By Joel Khalili
August 19, 2021

Outlook tone detector should spare a few blushes

(Image credit: Shutterstock / 1494)

Microsoft is building a new feature for Outlook that should minimize the opportunity for miscommunications over e-mail.

According to a new entry in the company’s product roadmap, the Outlook web client will soon be equipped with a tone detector.

“Microsoft Editor in Outlook on the web will now offer writing refinements and suggest conversation tone,” the post explains.

Microsoft is still putting finishing touches on the new feature, which should become available to users next month.

Microsoft Outlook update

With the rise of remote working during the pandemic, the ability to communicate effectively over email and text-based chat has become a vital attribute for employees. But for many people, this is easier said than done.

Without voice intonation, body language and facial prompts to add context to interactions, nuances are often lost and intended tone misinterpreted. Sarcasm, for example, is much more difficult to communicate over virtual channels, and feedback is difficult to frame without appearing overly critical.

Although details remain scant, it appears the new Outlook feature will intervene when someone is about to fire off a message that is likely to be misinterpreted in one way or another, as well as policing for errors of grammar and spelling.

In theory, the Outlook tone detector will give users a chance to revisit messages, which may have been composed in a hurry or in a state of frustration, and make revisions if necessary - for the sake of diplomacy.

Microsoft has said nothing about the underlying technology that will make the new Outlook feature possible, but TechRadar Pro has asked for further clarification.

Joel Khalili

Joel Khalili is a Staff Writer working across both TechRadar Pro and ITProPortal. He's interested in receiving pitches around cybersecurity, data privacy, cloud, storage, Internet infrastructure, mobile, 5G and blockchain.

Source: Tech Radar  

Leavitt Communications


50 years experience providing and supporting radio and paging customers worldwide. Call us anytime we can be useful!






Minitor VI

Leavitt sells and supports most pager brands. We stock Unication G1, G5, Secure and some Elegant pagers. Call or e-mail for price and availability.

Philip C. Leavitt, V.P.
Leavitt Communications
7508 N. Red Ledge Drive
Paradise Valley, AZ 85253

Web Site:
Mobile phone: 847-494-0000
Telephone: 847-955-0511
Fax: 270-447-1909
Skype ID: pcleavitt

Cable TV Lost 1.1 Million Subscribers Last Quarter. They Went Here.

The pace of customer attrition slowed down, but only because fewer people are left to cut the cord.

James Brumley (TMFjbrumley)
Aug 19, 2021 at 7:30AM

Author Bio
James Brumley is former stockbroker with a large Wall Street firm, and a former trading analyst for a small, options-based newsletter. After twenty years of professional experience in and around the market, his approach is one that combines fundamentals, sentiment, and common sense. It's also an approach that respects this John Keynes reality: The market isn't always rational.

Key Points

  • Every single major cable service provider in the United States lost customers during Q2, pointing to problems with the business model.
  • As cable customers evolve, the slow demise of the industry is likely to continue.
  • The trend will eventually force cable players to rethink bundling and pricing.

U.S. consumers continue to cancel their conventional cable services. The nation's six biggest names in the business (which Leichtman Research says accounts for about 95% of the market) collectively lost a little over 1.1 million customers during the three-month stretch ending in June, slowing down Q1's cord-cutting pace of more than 1.5 million, but continuing the bigger-picture cord-cutting cadence that's been a problem for the industry since 2014.


AT&T (NYSE:T) led the way with its loss of 443,000 subscribers as its flagship platform DirecTV undergoes the major disruption of changing ownership hands, although the satellite-based service was bleeding customers well before the sale of DirecTV was even considered. No outfit gained subscribers, though, even including the better-established cable television brands like Comcast's (NASDAQ:CMCSA) Xfinity and Charter Communications' (NASDAQ:CHTR) Spectrum.

It's becoming crystal clear, however, these cord-cutters aren't giving up on TV. They're just watching it in a different way.

An undeniable migration

The graphic below plots the country's biggest six cable names' collective customer base going all the way back to early 2018. It was then that 83.1 million U.S. consumers were paying for conventional cable. Now, only 65.5 million households are doing so. We saw a clear bump in cord-cutting when the pandemic took hold last year, although the streak of losses has actually been pretty consistent when considering the entirety of the past 3.5 years.


And don't look for the downtrend to abate anytime soon. Market research company eMarketer estimates the number of conventional cable customers in the U.S. will continue to slide at least through 2024 when the number of non-pay-TV households is likely to eclipse the number of pay-TV households.

As was noted, though, people aren't spending less time in front of their television sets. They're just watching in a different way. Streaming is quickly becoming the preferred way of consuming video.

That comes as no surprise to anyone that's kept their finger on the pulse of this market. Netflix (NASDAQ:NFLX) began making a noticeable dent in cable's resilient growth back in 2013, just a few years after it began offering programs via streaming in addition to DVDs by mail. The 2008 launch of Hulu, now mostly owned by Walt Disney (NYSE:DIS), helped Netflix chip away at the idea of how TV programming can be marketed and consumed.

It's not a stretch to say, however, the streaming industry's been through an enormous evolution in just the past couple of years. Disney+, AT&T's HBO Max, and Comcast's Peacock are all newcomers, while ViacomCBS (NASDAQ:VIAC) (NASDAQ:VIAC.A) has of course offered Paramount+ (formerly known as CBS All Access) for some time but is also behind young cable-like streaming platform Pluto TV. Fox (NASDAQ:FOX) (NASDAQ:FOXA) owns ad-supported streaming service Tubi, and regularly serves around 40 million viewers. Even Discovery Communications (NASDAQ:DISC.A) (NASDAQ:DISCK) and AMC Networks (NASDAQ:AMCX) are now wading in streaming waters.

And they're all finding a shocking degree of success with these efforts. Last quarter, streaming services of all ilks added on the order of 44.7 million active users/subscribers.


Take that number with a grain of salt for a couple of reasons, the biggest of which is it's a worldwide number and not just a U.S. figure. The other reason to not read too much into this number is it requires multiple streaming services to fully replace a canceled cable package. Recent data from Parks Associates indicates around half the U.S. households that have cut the cord now pay for four or more streaming options.

Still, in that the United States remains the key market for most of these streaming brands — like Disney+, Discovery+, Pluto TV, and HBO Max — it's difficult to not connect the clear demise of conventional cable television with popularization of streaming alternatives.

Change has to happen

It still doesn't point to the inevitable end of cable television. Curiously, Dish Networks' (NASDAQ:DISH) skinny streaming bundle, SlingTV priced between $35 and $50 per month, added 70,000 paying customers last quarter. Sports-oriented fuboTV's (NYSE:FUBO) streaming cable service picked up another 91,291 paying customers during the second quarter despite its monthly cost of between $65 and $80. Consumers will obviously pay something of a premium for the right cable package, even if it's one they've pieced together. The aforementioned Parks Associates survey points out that consumers who have cut the cord are spending about $85 per month on streaming services, more or less in line with the typical monthly cost of traditional cable service.

Whatever the case, there's no way of denying the advent of streaming isn't at least a major disruption for the traditional cable media model.

There's also no reason to think the trends indicated in the two charts above won't persist until the major cable players like Charter's Spectrum and Comcast's Xfinity rethink their current bundling and pricing approach. Networks and cable channels are also going to have to get on board and stop forcing cable platforms to cram all of their content together in one package.

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The Motley Fool


Paging Transmitters 150/900 MHz

The RFI High Performance Paging Transmitter is designed for use in campus, city, state and country-wide paging systems. Designed for use where reliable simulcast systems where RF signal overlap coverage is critical.

  • Commercial Paging systems.
  • Healthcare Paging systems.
  • Public Safety Emergency Services Paging systems.
  • Demand Response Energy Grid Management.

Built-in custom interface for Prism-IPX ipBSC Base Controller for remote control, management and alarm reporting.

  • Use as a stand-alone unit or in wide area network.
  • Mix with other transmitter brands in an existing paging network.
  • Adjustable from 20-250 watts.
  • 110/240 VAC or 48VDC.
  • Absolute Delay Correction.
  • Remote Diagnostics.
  • Configurable alarm thresholds.
  • Integrated Isolator.
  • Superb Reliability.
  • Improved amplifier efficiency.
  • Most reliable high-powered paging transmitter available.

Prism-IPX Systems LLC.

11175 Cicero Dr., Alpharetta, GA 30022
Ph: 678-242-5290 Email:


“Is Paging Going Away?” by Jim Nelson

  • Click here for English.
  • Click here for German. (Berlin Revision: November 8, 2016)
  • Click here for French.

Here is an English PDF edit of this paper formatted with page breaks and suitable for printing.

Volunteers needed for translations into other languages.

Board of Advisors

The Wireless Messaging News
Board of Advisors

Frank McNeill
Founder & CEO
Communications Specialists
Jim Nelson
President & CEO
Prism Systems International
Kevin D. McFarland, MSCIS
Sr. Application Systems Analyst
Medical Center
Paul Lauttamus, President
Lauttamus Communications & Security
R.H. (Ron) Mercer
Wireless Consultant
Barry Kanne
Paging Industry Veteran
Ira Wiesenfeld, P.E.
Consulting Engineer
Allan Angus
Consulting Engineer

The Board of Advisor members are people with whom I have developed a special rapport, and have met personally. They are not obligated to support the newsletter in any way, except with advice, and maybe an occasional letter to the editor.




Can You Help The Newsletter?

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Reader Support

Newspapers generally cost 75¢ $1.50 a copy and they hardly ever mention paging or wireless messaging, unless in a negative way. If you receive some benefit from this publication maybe you would like to help support it financially?

A donation of $50.00 would certainly help cover a one-year period. If you are wiling and able, please click on the PayPal Donate button above.


prism-ipx systems

With PRISM IPX Systems, Your message is delivered Secure & Encrypted

prism-ipx systems

prism-ipx systems

Prism IPX Products
PriMega Message Gateway
The PriMega manages a paging network from the message input using telephone and data lines to the data output to one or more paging transmitters, e-mail or text messaging destinations.
IPT Systems
The IPT is a versatile small footprint Linux based product used for small paging systems and for converting data protocols for messaging systems. Popular for converting text messaging transport protocols for linking message systems.
Message Logging Systems
Paging Message Logging software collects data decoded off-the-air and sends the data to the logging server. Logs can be used to prove messages were actual transmitted and were capable of being received without error.

Thousands of Users Worldwide Depend on Prism IPX

Our Customers Trust Us To Make Sure That Their Messages Get Delivered

Prism-IPX Systems products include full-featured radio paging systems with VoIP input, IP based transmitter control systems and paging message encryption. Other options include e-mail messaging, remote switch controllers, Off-The-Air paging message decoders and logging systems.

How Can We Help You With Your Critical Messaging Solutions?


MORE INFO HERE left arrow


Easy Solutions

easy solutions

Providing Expert Support and Service Contracts for all Glenayre Paging Systems.

The GL3000 is the most prolific paging system in the world and Easy Solutions gladly welcomes you to join us in providing reliable support to the paging industry for many more decades in the future.

Easy Solutions provides cost effective computer and wireless solutions at affordable prices. We can help in most any situation with your communications systems. We have many years of experience and a vast network of resources to support the industry, your system and an ever changing completive landscape.

  • We treat our customers like family. We don’t just fix problems . . . We recommend and implement better cost-effective solutions.
  • We are not just another vendor . . . We are a part of your team. All the advantages of high priced full-time employment without the cost.
  • We are not in the Technical Services business . . . We are in the Customer Satisfaction business.

Experts in Paging Infrastructure

  • Glenayre, Motorola, Unipage, etc.
  • Excellent Service Contracts
  • Full Service—Beyond Factory Support
  • Making systems More Reliable and MORE PROFITABLE for over 30 years.

Please see our web site for exciting solutions designed specifically for the Wireless Industry. We also maintain a diagnostic lab and provide important repair and replacement parts services for Motorola and Glenayre equipment. Call or e-mail us for more information.

Easy Solutions
3220 San Simeon Way
Plano, Texas 75023

Vaughan Bowden
Telephone: 972-898-1119
Telephone: 214 785-8255


I would like to recommend Easy Solutions for Support of all Glenayre Paging Equipment. This Texas company is owned and operated by Vaughan Bowden. I have known Vaughan for over 35 years. Without going into a long list of his experience and qualifications, let me just say that he was the V.P. of Engineering at PageNet which was—at that time—the largest paging company in the world. So Vaughan knows Paging.

GTES is no longer offering support contracts. GTES was the original group from Vancouver that was setup to offer support to customers that wanted to continue with the legacy Glenayre support. Many U.S. customers chose not to use this service because of the price and the original requirement to upgrade to version 8.0 software (which required expensive hardware upgrades, etc.). Most contracts ended as of February 2018.

If you are at all concerned about future support of Glenayre products, especially the “king of the hill” the GL3000 paging control terminal, I encourage you to talk to Vaughan about a service contract and please tell him about my recommendation.

Click on the image above for more info about advertising here.

INTERNET Protocol Terminal

The IPT accepts INTERNET or serial messaging using various protocols and can easily convert them to different protocols, or send them out as paging messages.

An ideal platform for hospitals, on-site paging applications, or converting legacy systems to modern protocols.

Input Protocols: Serial and IP
Output Protocols: Serial and IP
FLEX (optional PURC control)   POCSAG (optional PURC control)

Additional/Optional Features

  • Database of up to 5000 subscribers.
  • 4 serial ports on board.
  • Up to 8 phone lines (DID or POTS).
  • Can be configured for auto-fail-over to hot swap standby.
  • 1RU rack mount unit appliance—no moving parts.
  • Easily secure legacy system messages leaving site for HIPAA compliance.
  • Only purchase the protocols/options you need.
  • Add Paging Encryption for HIPAA compliance on site.

Prism-IPX Systems LLC.

11175 Cicero Dr., Alpharetta, GA 30022
Ph: 678-242-5290 e-mail:

Paging Data Receiver PDR-4

The PDR-4 is a multi-function paging data receiver that decodes paging messages and outputs them via the serial port, USB or Ethernet connectors.

Designed for use with Prism-IPX ECHO software Message Logging Software to receive messages and log the information for proof of transmission over the air, and if the data was error free.

  • Option—decode capcode list or all messages.
  • Large capcode capacity.
  • Serial, USB and Ethernet output.
  • POCSAG or FLEX page decoding, special SA protocols.
  • Receivers for paging bands in VHF, UHF, 900 MHz.
  • Message activated Alarm Output.
  • 8 programmable relay outputs.
  • Send notifications of a system problem.
  • Synthesized Receiver Tuning.
  • Selectivity better than 60 dB.
  • Frequencies 148-174, 450-470, 929-932 MHz.
  • Image Rejection better than 55 dB.
  • Spurious Rejection better than 55 dB.
  • Channel Spacing 12.5 or 25 kHz.
  • Power 5VDC.
  • Receiving Sensitivity 5µV at 1200 bps.

Prism-IPX Systems LLC.

11175 Cicero Dr., Alpharetta, GA 30022
Ph: 678-242-5290 e-mail:

Wireless Network Planners

Wireless Network Planners
Wireless Specialists

R.H. (Ron) Mercer
217 First Street
East Northport, NY 11731

ron mercer
Telephone: 631-786-9359 left arrow left arrow

Introducing Horizon Workrooms: Remote Collaboration Reimagined

August 19, 2021

The way we work is changing. More people are working remotely, more people want flexible work options, and more people are re-thinking what it means to be in an office. But without the right connective tools, remote work still has plenty of challenges. Working without colleagues around you can feel isolating at times, and brainstorming with other people just doesn’t feel the same if you’re not in the same room. So today, we’re excited to launch the open beta of Horizon Workrooms, available for free to download on Oculus Quest 2 in countries where Quest 2 is supported.

Workrooms is our flagship collaboration experience that lets people come together to work in the same virtual room, regardless of physical distance. It works across both virtual reality and the web and is designed to improve your team’s ability to collaborate, communicate, and connect remotely, through the power of VR— whether that’s getting together to brainstorm or whiteboard an idea, work on a document, hear updates from your team, hang out and socialize, or simply have better conversations that flow more naturally.

Workrooms brings some of our best new technologies together for the first time into one experience on Quest 2. Using features like mixed-reality desk and keyboard tracking, hand tracking, remote desktop streaming, video conferencing integration, spatial audio, and the new Oculus Avatars, we’ve created a different kind of productivity experience.

We’ve been using Workrooms to collaborate here at Facebook already, and we think it’s one of the best ways to work if you can’t be physically together.

Product Overview

Workrooms is a virtual meeting space where you and your colleagues can work better together from anywhere. You can join a meeting in VR as an avatar or dial into the virtual room from your computer by video call. You can use a huge virtual whiteboard to sketch out ideas together, bring your computer and keyboard into VR to work together with others, or just have expressive conversations that feel more like you’re together in person.

Here’s a look at all the new features in detail:

  • Bring your desk, computer, and keyboard into VR with you: Working from VR doesn’t mean you have to leave your regular tools behind. Workrooms is a mixed reality experience, letting you bring your physical desk and compatible tracked keyboard into the virtual room with you, where you can see them sitting on the virtual meeting table in front of you. Combined with the new Oculus Remote Desktop companion app for Mac and Windows, you’ll have fast one-click access to your entire computer from VR. You can take notes during your meetings, bring your files into VR, and even share your screen with colleagues if you choose. See here for details on compatible devices.
  • Feel like you’re together with avatars and spatial audio: Feel more connected and have more natural conversations using our new and improved Oculus Avatars and spatial audio technology. Our new avatars, which we launched earlier this year, offer a huge variety of customization options and feel more expressive and natural, helping you feel like you’re really there with your colleagues. The conversation sounds more lifelike too—with our high quality, low latency spatial audio, you’ll hear the people around you based on where they’re seated, just like they’d sound in a real room, making conversations flow smoothly.
  • A virtual whiteboard as big as your ideas: Every room in Workrooms offers infinite whiteboard space so you can sketch things out together in real time. For the first time, you can use your controller in a new way by flipping it around and writing with it like a pen, either on the physical desk in front of you or standing with others at the whiteboard. You can also pin images from your computer on the whiteboard and then mark them up and review with colleagues. Your whiteboards stick around in Workrooms for as long as you need them, so you can come back any time and continue working from the same room. And once you’re done, you can export any whiteboard out of VR to share as an image on your computer.
  • A room to suit every task: You can configure the virtual room’s layout to match your needs. Whether you’re focused on collaboration, conversation, or presentation, there’s a seating layout for every occasion, and the whole room scales up and down to fit the size of your group.
  • Join in VR or by video call: Not everyone will always have a VR headset handy, so you can also dial in to a room from your computer by video call. You can invite guests to dial in too, just by sharing a meeting link. Video participants will show up on a video screen in the virtual room, just like a real conference room. We support up to 16 people in VR together, and up to 50 people total on a call, including video participants.
  • Designed to use your hands: Workrooms is one of our first experiences that was designed from the start to use your hands, and not controllers, as your primary input. This helps to create a more natural and expressive social experience and lets you switch more easily between physical tools like your keyboard and controllers when needed. (To ensure the best experience, you’ll need to enable hand tracking to use Workrooms.)
  • Meeting notes, file sharing, calendar integration, and chat: The Workrooms web app, offered in countries where Facebook is available, makes it easier to collaborate whether you’re in VR or at your computer. Every room in Workrooms comes with a place on the web to capture notes and action items while you’re in a meeting, share links and files, and chat with your team. You can also sync your Outlook or Google Calendar to make it easier to schedule meetings and send invites.

Getting Started

If you’re the first of your colleagues to try Workrooms, you can sign up to create a new Workrooms team at And if your colleagues are already using Workrooms, they can send you an email invite to join their existing Workrooms team. You’ll need to agree to the terms, confirm that you’re 18 years or older, and choose a name to display in Workrooms.

Once you’ve created an account, you can download and install Horizon Workrooms from the Oculus Store on your Quest 2, then follow the instructions in the app to pair your headset to your account and get started. For more information on how to set up your account and get started, you can see our FAQ here.

Safety and Privacy in Workrooms

When you choose to collaborate with your coworkers in Workrooms, you should feel in control of your experience, and we built Workrooms with privacy and safety in mind.

Workrooms will not use your work conversations and materials to inform ads on Facebook. Additionally, Pass-through processes images and videos of your physical environment from the device sensors locally. Facebook and third-party apps do not access, view or use these images or videos to target ads. Finally, other people are not able to see your computer screen in Workrooms unless you choose to share it, and the permissions you grant for the Oculus Remote Desktop app are only used for the purposes of allowing streaming from your computer to your headset.

In addition to keeping your information secure, we want everyone to feel safe while collaborating in Workrooms. That’s why anyone who signs up for Workrooms must agree to follow our Facebook Community Standards and Conduct in VR Policy. If other members or content in the workroom violate these policies, you can always contact the team admin who can take action such as removing someone from the Workrooms team. You can also report an entire Workrooms team if you think it’s not following our policies. And If you’re in VR with people who are bothering you, you can report them using the Oculus reporting tool and include evidence for us to review. If someone records and sends us a clip of the audio content of your meetings as part of a report, we’ll use the information to take appropriate action and then delete the recordings.

Using Workrooms requires a Workrooms account, which is separate from your Oculus or Facebook accounts, although your Oculus username may be visible to other users in some cases — for example if someone reports you for violating our policies and your username appears in the tool. And to experience Workrooms in VR, you’ll need to access the app on Quest 2, which requires a Facebook login. Your use of Workrooms will not make any updates to your Facebook profile or timeline unless you choose to do so.

We’re committed to ensuring Horizon Workrooms is a safe and secure space to collaborate, and we’ll continue taking steps to protect your data and how it’s used to deliver powerful VR experiences.

Bringing Workrooms Features to Developers

We hope that developers are excited to use many of the same features seen in Workrooms in their own apps, and we’re working hard to bring them to our platform as well. You can already start by using our hand tracking and spatial audio features in your own apps today. And we’re working to bring avatars, Pass-through, mixed-reality desk, and tracked keyboard capabilities to the platform too. We’re excited to continue growing the VR for work ecosystem, and we hope that Workrooms serves as inspiration for how these features can work together.

We think VR will fundamentally transform the way we work as a new computing platform, defying distance to help people collaborate better from anywhere. Horizon Workrooms is a big first step towards this vision, and we look forward to hearing your feedback.

Learn more about Workrooms on the Oculus blog or get started at


Consulting Alliance

Brad Dye, Ron Mercer, Allan Angus, Vic Jackson, and Ira Wiesenfeld are friends and colleagues who work both together and independently, on wireline and wireless communications projects.

Click here left arrow for a summary of their qualifications and experience. Each one has unique abilities. We would be happy to help you with a project, and maybe save you some time and money.

Note: We do not like Patent Trolls, i.e. “a person or company who enforces patent rights against accused infringers in an attempt to collect licensing fees, but does not manufacture products or supply services based upon the patents in question.” We have helped some prominent law firms defend their clients against this annoyance, and would be happy to do some more of this same kind of work.

Some people use the title “consultant” when they don't have a real job. We actually do consulting work, and help others based on our many years of experience.

“If you would know the road ahead, ask someone who has traveled it.” — Chinese Proverb

Remote AB Switches

ABX-1 switches are often used at remote transmitter sites to convert from old, outdated and unsupported controllers to the new modern Prism-IPX ipBSC base station controllers. Remotely switch to new controllers with GUI commands.


ABX-3 switches are widely used for enabling or disabling remote equipment and switching I/O connections between redundant messaging systems.


Common Features:

  • RJ45 for A, B and Common connectors.
  • Manual push button or use Prism IP commands to switch one or more relays.
  • Single or Dual Port Control card for IP or Serial connection.
  • Form C relay—control local connection.
  • Power Loss Indicator.
  • Rear Panel Connector for controlling the switch externally.
  • Power Source: 5VDC for ABX-1; 12VDC for ABX-3.

Prism-IPX Systems LLC.

11175 Cicero Dr., Alpharetta, GA 30022
Ph: 678-242-5290 e-mail:

Leavitt Communications

We can supply alphanumeric display, numeric display, and voice pagers.

We also offer NEW and refurbished Alphamate 250s, refurbished Alphamate IIs, the original Alphamate refurbished, and new and refurbished pagers, pager repairs, pager parts, and accessories. We are FULL SERVICE in Paging! Outstanding service is our goal.

E-mail Phil Leavitt ( ) for pricing and delivery information, or for a list of other available paging and two-way related equipment.

Phil Leavitt

7508 N. Red Ledge Drive
Paradise Valley, AZ 85253

Inside Towers Newsletter

Friday, August 20, 2021 Volume 9 | Issue 163

Verizon Explores New Tech for Keeping Data Safe from Hackers

By J. Sharpe Smith, Inside Towers Technology Editor

With the massive hack of T-Mobile’s user database fresh in everyone’s minds, Verizon announced Thursday that it is testing new technology to protect data from hackers. Using a quantum-safe virtual private network (VPN), the carrier is looking to cryptographic ciphers to provide a higher level of protection, essentially, enhancing encryption methodologies to make them future proof.

Quantum-safe cryptography refers to efforts to identify algorithms that are resistant to attacks by both classical and quantum computers, to keep information assets secure even if a large-scale quantum computer is built in the future, according to ETSI, the European standards organization.

In a recent trial, Verizon tested how a quantum-safe VPN can replace the current public key encryption methods to establish encryption keys using post-quantum cryptography (PQC). Keys or ciphers were exchanged between two private 5G networks located in Verizon’s 5G Lab in London and its Executive Briefing Center in Ashburn, VA. Last year, Verizon piloted quantum key distribution using live video outside of three Verizon locations in the Washington, D.C. area, where the properties of quantum mechanics were used to prevent meaningful eavesdropping and to detect the presence of eavesdroppers.

Cellular No Stranger to Cyberhacks

The hack of 47.8 million records of current and former T-Mobile subscribers is just the latest data breach to hit the wireless industry, among others. The carrier logged two lesser data breaches in 2020, as well, according to CPO Magazine.

“T-Mobile exposed customer and call-related information of 200,000 subscribers,” the publication reported. “The breach was the second in 2020, and the fourth to hit the company since 2018. Similarly, its partner company Sprint suffered two breaches in 2019, and two others in May and July 2020.”

The 2018 T-Mobile data breach affected about two million customers, according to Newsweek, in what the company called “unauthorized capture” of personal data such as name, address and birthdate.

UScellular suffered a data breach in January when hackers gained access to protected systems by installing malware on a computer at one of its retail stores, Forbes reported.

You have to go back to 2015 to find news of an AT&T data breach. According to CNBC, about 280,000 U.S. customers’ names and full or partial Social Security numbers were exposed at call centers used by AT&T in Mexico, Colombia, and the Philippines. The carrier paid a $25 million fine to the FCC for consumer privacy violations.

Source: Inside Towers newsletter Courtesy of the editor of Inside Towers, Jim Fryer.
Inside Towers is a daily newsletter by subscription.

BloostonLaw Newsletter

Selected portions [sometimes more — sometimes less — sometimes the whole updates] of the BloostonLaw Telecom Update and/or the BloostonLaw Private Users Update — newsletters from the Law Offices of Blooston, Mordkofsky, Dickens, Duffy & Prendergast, LLP — are reproduced in this section of The Wireless Messaging News with kind permission from the firm's partners. The firm's contact information is included at the end of this section of the newsletter.

  BloostonLaw Telecom Update Vol. 24, No. 35 August 18, 2021  

RDOF Letter of Credit, Bankruptcy Opinion Due Aug. 27 for Letter Recipients

On July 26, the FCC issued a Public Notice announcing 1,460 winning bids in the Rural Digital Opportunity Fund (RDOF) auction were ready to be authorized. As we reported in a previous edition of the BloostonLaw Telecom Update, some of those winning bidders also received a letter discussing the possibility of defaulting on certain of the blocks in their winning bids. For recipients of these letters, the deadline for filing their letter of credit and bankruptcy opinion letters was extended to 6:00 p.m. ET on August 27.

BloostonLaw Contacts: Ben Dickens and Sal Taillefer.


FCC Ordered to Revisit RF Safety Guidelines

In a ruling that is likely to embolden critics of wireless technology and antenna siting proposals, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the DC Circuit last Friday directed the FCC to reexamine its health and safety guidelines for 5G and other wireless-based technologies.

The Court granted in part petitions for review filed by the Environmental Health Trust and several other groups of a 2019 FCC order terminating a Notice of Inquiry regarding the adequacy of its RF exposure guidelines (ET Docket No. 13-84), which were adopted in 1996. The FCC had previously concluded that the best available scientific evidence, including opinions provided by expert U.S. federal health agencies, supported maintaining the existing RF exposure limits. However, the Court disagreed, finding that the FCC’s 2019 dismissal of the NOI was arbitrary and capricious and not evidence based. The court also found that the FDA’s analysis – upon which the FCC’s analysis relied – was not evidence based.

Specifically, the Court found that the FCC "failed to provide a reasoned explanation for its determination that its guidelines adequately protect against the harmful effects of exposure to radio-frequency radiation unrelated to cancer," and that this failure undermined the FCC’s conclusions relating to the adequacy of its testing procedures, particularly as they relate to children.

Children’s Health Defense lead attorney Scott McCollough applauded the ruling as an historic win. “The FCC will have to re-open the proceeding and for the first time meaningfully and responsibly confront the vast amount of scientific and medical evidence showing that current guidelines do not adequately protect health and the environment.”

However, the Court was careful in not taking a position in the scientific debate regarding health and environmental effects of RF radiation. “We merely conclude that the Commission’s cursory analysis of material record evidence was insufficient as a matter of law,” wrote the Court.

On remand, the FCC must now either provide a reasoned explanation for its decision to retain the 1996 RF guidelines, or to revisit and potentially revise the guidelines in the context of a rulemaking. Such a proceeding is certain to be politically charged regardless of its outcome.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast and Cary Mitchell.

Winning Bidders for Auction 109 Announced

On August 12, the FCC issued a Public Notice announcing the winning bidders for Auction 109 of AM and FM broadcast construction permits. According to the Public Notice, Auction 109, raised in net bids a total of $12,344,110, with 67 bidders winning a total of 97 construction permits.

The Public Notice also established the following deadlines:

  • Down Payments are due by 6:00 p.m. Eastern Time (ET) on August 26. Specifically, each winning bidder’s total amount on deposit must be 20% of the aggregate net amount of its winning bid(s).
  • Final payments are due by 6:00 p.m. ET on September 13. To avoid a late fee or default, this payment must be made by wire transfer and must be received in the FCC’s account at the U.S. Treasury before this deadline.
  • Late final payments are due by 6:00 p.m. ET on September 27. To avoid default, a late payment after the September 13 deadline must be made by wire transfer and must be received in the FCC’s account at the U.S. Treasury before the late payment deadline, along with a 5% late fee.

Specific payment instructions can be found in the Public Notice here. A list of winning bidders, along with the amounts due by the deadlines above, can be found here.

BloostonLaw Contact: Cary Mitchell.

Law and Regulation

911 Reliability Certification Portal Open; Filings Due October 15

On August 16, the FCC announced that its 911 Reliability Certification System is now open for filing annual reliability certifications. The filing deadline is October 15.

Covered 911 service providers must certify that they have taken reasonable measures to provide 911 service, or alternative measures thereto, with respect to the following:

  • 911 circuit diversity;
  • central office backup power;
  • diverse network monitoring.

This rule applies to any entities that provide 911, E911, or NG911 capabilities (such as call routing, automatic location information (ALI), automatic number identification (ANI), or the functional equivalent of those capabilities) directly to a public safety answering point (PSAP), statewide default answering point, or appropriate local emergency authority. It also applies to any entities that operate one or more central offices that directly serve a PSAP. A central office directly serves a PSAP if it (1) hosts a selective router or ALI/ANI database, (2) provides equivalent NG911 capabilities, or (3) is the last service-provider facility through which a 911 trunk or 10-digit administrative line passes before connecting to a PSAP.

BloostonLaw attorneys are prepared to answer questions and assist in drafting the certification documents.

BloostonLaw Contact: Sal Taillefer.

Company Surrenders FCC Authorizations and Pays $24,000 to Settle Unauthorized Transfer of Control Investigation

On August 13, the FCC entered into a consent decree with Vertex Telecom, Inc. and Vertex SSX, Inc. (collectively Vertex) in order to resolve the FCC’s investigation into whether Vertex violated section 214 of the Act and sections 63.03, 63.04, and 63.24 of the FCC’s rules. According to the Order, these violations pertain to the sale of 100% of each company’s stock to Dr. Peng Holding, Inc., a subsidiary of Dr. Peng Telecom and Media Group, Ltd., a publicly traded Chinese company (Dr. Peng), without the requisite approvals from the FCC’s Wireline Competition Bureau and International Bureau.

The Order indicates that Vertex Telecom, Inc. provides telecommunications services to small and medium-sized businesses and enterprises under the VTX Telecom brand. It also provides low-cost international calling options to individuals through prepaid calling cards, as well as smartphone apps, under the DynaSky brand.

To resolve this matter, Vertex admits that it failed to obtain the FCC’s approval prior to transferring its section 214 authority and agrees to divest all ownership interests that are held by Dr. Peng, discontinue its remaining FCC regulated activities, surrender all of its FCC authorizations, and pay a civil penalty.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast and Sal Taillefer.

Carriers File Petitions for Waiver of RDOF Default Penalties; Decline to Serve Census Blocks

Since August 16, twenty five petitions for waiver of the penalties associated with default in the Rural Digital Opportunity Fund (RDOF) auction have been filed with the FCC. As we reported in a previous edition of the BloostonLaw Telecom Update, when the FCC released the first list of winning bidders authorized to receive support, it also announced that it had sent letters to 197 winning bidders providing those applicants an opportunity to withdraw their funding requests from those places already with service or where significant questions of waste have been raised.

According to the letters, concerns had been raised that certain census blocks included in the recipients’ bids are already served by one or more service providers that offer 25/3 Mbps broadband service or otherwise raise significant concerns about wasteful spending, such as parking lots and international airports and, as such, the FCC will “entertain requests for waiver of the penalties normally associated with defaults.” The FCC indicated it “anticipate[s] looking favorably on requests” that show defaulting on these bids will serve the public interest.

BloostonLaw Contacts: Ben Dickens and Sal Taillefer.


Lumen Announces Deal to Sell ILEC Assets in 20 States

Earlier this month, Lumen Technologies announced it has entered into a definitive agreement to sell its ILEC (incumbent local exchange carrier) business, including its consumer, small business, wholesale and mostly copper-served enterprise customers and assets, in 20 states to funds managed by affiliates of Apollo Global Management, Inc. (the "Apollo Funds") for $7.5 billion, including debt assumption of approximately $1.4 billion, and subject to working capital and various other purchase price adjustments.

Under the terms of the transaction, Lumen will retain its ILEC assets in 16 states, as well as its national fiber routes and CLEC (competitive local exchange carrier) networks as it delivers a platform for next-gen business applications and data. For Apollo Funds, the transaction will provide a scaled local network, as well as the operations and back-office support to meet the accelerating demand for high-bandwidth connectivity and fiber technology.


AUGUST 29: COPYRIGHT STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTS. The Copyright Statement of Accounts form plus royalty payment for the first half of year is due to be filed August 29 at the Library of Congress’ Copyright Office by cable TV service providers.

BloostonLaw Contact: Gerry Duffy.

SEPTEMBER 1: FCC FORM 477, LOCAL COMPETITION AND BROADBAND REPORTING FORM. Three types of entities must file this form.

  1. Facilities-based Providers of Broadband Connections to End User Locations: Entities that are facilities-based providers of broadband connections – which are wired “lines” or wireless “channels” that enable the end user to receive information from and/or send information to the Internet at information transfer rates exceeding 200 kbps in at least one direction – must complete and file the applicable portions of this form for each state in which the entity provides one or more such connections to end user locations. For the purposes of Form 477, an entity is a “facilities-based” provider of broadband connections to end user locations if it owns the portion of the physical facility that terminates at the end user location, if it obtains unbundled network elements (UNEs), special access lines, or other leased facilities that terminate at the end user location and provisions/equips them as broadband, or if it provisions/equips a broadband wireless channel to the end user location over licensed or unlicensed spectrum. Such entities include incumbent and competitive local exchange carriers (LECs), cable system operators, fixed wireless service providers (including “wireless ISPs”), terrestrial and satellite mobile wireless service providers, MMDS providers, electric utilities, municipalities, and other entities. (Such entities do not include equipment suppliers unless the equipment supplier uses the equipment to provision a broadband connection that it offers to the public for sale. Such entities also do not include providers of fixed wireless services (e.g., “Wi-Fi” and other wireless ethernet, or wireless local area network, applications) that only enable local distribution and sharing of a premises broadband facility.)
  2. Providers of Wired or Fixed Wireless Local Telephone Services: Incumbent and competitive LECs must complete and file the applicable portions of the form for each state in which they provide local exchange service to one or more end user customers (which may include “dial-up” ISPs).
  3. Providers of Interconnected Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) Service: Interconnected VoIP service is a service that enables real-time, two-way voice communications; requires a broadband connection from the user’s location; requires Internet-protocol compatible customer premises equipment; and permits users generally to receive calls that originate on the public switched telephone network and to terminate calls to the public switched telephone network. Interconnected VoIP providers must complete and file the applicable portions of the form for each state in which they provide interconnected VoIP service to one or more subscribers, with the state determined for reporting purposes by the location of the subscriber’s broadband connection or the subscriber’s “Registered Location” as of the data-collection date. “Registered Location” is the most recent information obtained by an interconnected VoIP service provider that identifies the physical location of an end user.
  4. Providers of Mobile Telephony Services: Facilities-based providers of mobile telephony services must complete and file the applicable portions of this form for each state in which they serve one or more mobile telephony subscribers. A mobile telephony service is a real-time, two-way switched voice service that is interconnected with the public switched network using an in-network switching facility that enables the provider to reuse frequencies and accomplish seamless handoff of subscriber calls. A mobile telephony service provider is considered “facilities-based” if it serves a subscriber using spectrum for which the entity holds a license that it manages, or for which it has obtained the right to use via lease or other arrangement with a Band Manager.

BloostonLaw Contacts: Ben Dickens and Gerry Duffy.

SEPTEMBER 30: FCC FORM 396-C, MVPD EEO PROGRAM REPORTING FORM. Each year on September 30, multi-channel video program distributors (“MVPDs”) must file with the FCC an FCC Form 396-C, Multi-Channel Video Programming Distributor EEO Program Annual Report, for employment units with six or more full-time employees. Users must access the FCC’s electronic filing system via the Internet in order to submit the form; it will not be accepted if filed on paper unless accompanied by an appropriate request for waiver of the electronic filing requirement. Certain MVPDs also will be required to complete portions of the Supplemental Investigation Sheet (“SIS”) located at the end of the Form. These MVPDs are specifically identified in a Public Notice each year by the FCC.

BloostonLaw Contacts: Gerry Duffy and Sal Taillefer.

SEPTEMBER 30: FCC FORM 611-T, DESIGNATED ENTITY REPORT. Each year on September 30, entities that won licenses at auction with bid credits must file a combined 611-T Designated Entity report for any licenses still subject to the “unjust enrichment” rule, which requires licensees to maintain their eligibility for small business and rural service provider bid credits for the first five years of the license term.

BloostonLaw Contacts: John Prendergast and Cary Mitchell.

OCTOBER 15: 911 RELIABILITY CERTIFICATION. Covered 911 Service Providers, which are defined as entities that “[p]rovide[] 911, E911, or NG911 capabilities such as call routing, automatic location information (ALI), automatic number identification (ANI), or the functional equivalent of those capabilities, directly to a public safety answering point (PSAP), statewide default answering point, or appropriate local emergency authority,” or that “[o]perate[] one or more central offices that directly serve a PSAP,” are required certify that they have taken reasonable measures to provide reliable 911 service with respect to three substantive requirements:

  1. 911 circuit diversity;
  2. central office backup power; and
  3. diverse network monitoring by October 15.

Certifications must be made through the FCC’s portal.

BloostonLaw Contacts: Mary Sisak and Sal Taillefer.

Calendar At-a-Glance

Aug. 23 – Reply comments are due on Extension of CAF Phase II Letter of Credit Waiver.
Aug. 23 – Comments are due on Edison Electric Institute Pole Attachment Petition for Declaratory Ruling.
Aug. 27 – RDOF Letter of Credit and Bankruptcy Opinion Letters are due (letter extension, 6 P.M. ET).
Aug. 29 – Copyright Statement of Accounts is due.

Sep. 1 – FCC Form 477 due (Local Competition and Broadband Report).
Sep. 7– Reply comments are due on Edison Electric Institute Pole Attachment Petition for Declaratory Ruling.
Sep. 7 – Comments are due on Broadcast Station Technical Rules NPRM.
Sep. 10 – Reply comments on Space Launch Industry Spectrum are due.
Sep. 20 – Reply comments are due on Broadcast Station Technical Rules NPRM.
Sep. 27 – ETRS Form Three is due.
Sep. 30 – FCC Form 396-C (MVPD EEO Program Annual Report).
Sep. 30 – FCC Form 611T Designated Entity Report due for Licenses subject to Unjust Enrichment rule

Oct. 8 – TV Broadcaster Relocation Fund Reimbursement Forms due for Phase 1-5 broadcasters.
Oct. 15 – 911 Reliability Certification
Oct. 21 – Notice of C-Band Operation for Earth Stations is due.

Law Offices Of
Blooston, Mordkofsky, Dickens,
Duffy & Prendergast, LLP

2120 L St. NW, Suite 300
Washington, D.C. 20037
(202) 659-0830
(202) 828-5568 (fax)


Harold Mordkofsky, 202-828-5520,
Benjamin H. Dickens, Jr., 202-828-5510,
Gerard J. Duffy, 202-828-5528,
John A. Prendergast, 202-828-5540,
Richard D. Rubino, 202-828-5519,
Mary J. Sisak, 202-828-5554,
D. Cary Mitchell, 202-828-5538,
Salvatore Taillefer, Jr., 202-828-5562,

This newsletter is not intended to provide legal advice. Those interested in more information should contact the firm.

Complete Technical Services for the Communications and Electronics Industries

Technical Services Inc.

Texas Registered Engineering Firm #F16945

“It's more than Push-To-Talk”

7711 Scotia Drive
Dallas, TX 75248-3112

Ira Wiesenfeld, P.E.

President • Principal Engineer

Cell: 214-707-7711
Toll Free: 844-IWA-TECH (844-492-8324)

Design  •  Installation  •  Maintenance  •  Training


Technician's Corner

TOWER SHADOWING By Ira Wiesenfeld, P.E.

I had dinner with my good friend Ira Wiesenfeld last week. In the midst of our most enjoyable conversation, Ira told me one of his success stories; about how he solved a serious coverage issue on a public-safety two-way radio system. It was so interesting that I asked him if I could have a copy of the tutorial article he wrote (some years ago). I thought here in the Technician's Corner would be the perfect place for it.

So with Ira's permission, I have edited and updated his paper. It is a little too long to put it entirely in one issue, so I will include it here — as a series — in sections.


Section Three

By Ira Wiesenfeld, P.E. with additions and updates by Brad Dye


In radio and electronics, the numbers are listed in Decibels, but not everyone understands these relationships. Below is a brief explanation of decibels.

Numbers can be expressed in two forms. The first is the number itself. The second is how much the number 10 must be raised by an exponent to get that number. The examples below will help you understand this:

100 = 102
1000 = 103
0.01 = 10-4
2 = 100.301
3 = 100.4771

Logarithms are useful because extremely large and extremely small numbers are easier to express. The difference between the two numbers is not related to the numbers themselves. The advent of the scientific calculator has made the use of logarithms very easy. There are two types of logarithms, natural and common. The common logarithm is based on powers of 10 and is calculated using the key LOG and is different than the natural logarithm, which is calculated by using the LN key on the calculator. The LN key will not be used in these applications.

Gains of amplifiers, loss of power, audio levels, earthquakes and many other quantities are expressed in numbers based upon logarithms. Human senses such as light intensity, hearing and pain intensity are also measured by the body logarithmically. The common level expressed in decibels is based upon a mathematical formula based upon logarithms.


Decibels are the unit of relative measure used throughout the radio world. The following formulas are used for calculating decibels:

DBPower = 10 x LOG (POUT / PIN)
DBVoltage = 20 x LOG (VOUT / VIN)

If you always have the OUT divided by the IN level, the following will always hold true:

A positive number represents GAIN.

A negative number represents LOSS.

If the Input and Output are the same, the gain will be 0 dB.


A radio transmitter system consists of the transmitter, antenna peripheral equipment, coaxial line loss, connector loss and antenna gain or loss. The EFFECTIVE RADIATED POWER (ERP) is the amount of power that would be the equivalent if a transmitter was placed on the tower with a unity gain antenna.

The transmitter power, less the losses, added with the gains, gives the ERP.

Power (ERP) = Power (Transmitter) – Power (Losses) + Power (Gains)


dBm is a unit of ABSOLUTE POWER, where dB is a relative number. The following chart will help show this:

0 dBm = 1 milliwatt
+30 dBm = 1 Watt
+60 dBm = 1000 Watts
-30 dBm = 1 microwatt (µW)
dBm = 10 Log [(POUT) / 1µV]

When you are working in radio, the impedance is 50 Ω (Ohms).

When you are working in telephony, the impedance is 600 Ω (Ohms).

Either way, the power levels or voltage levels are the same.

X2 = 3 DB
X4 = 6 DB
X10 = 10 DB
X100 = 20 DB
X1000 = 30 DB
X ½ = -3 DB
X 1/10 = -10 DB

X2 = 6 DB
X4 = 12 DB
X10 = 20 DB
X100 = 40 DB
X ½ = -6 DB
X 1/10 = -20 DB

Now that we understand a little bit about Decibels, let us now differentiate between the common uses and misuses of this term.

When working with radio signals, the levels can be extremely large or extremely small, and as a result, the use of Decibels is necessary to express these levels. The following four sections will help in separating the uses of the term dB.


When you use the term dB, you are only comparing one signal value to another signal value. When looking at a filter loss, amplifier gain, or antenna gain or loss, then the use of the term dB is the correct choice.


dBm is an absolute value. If you had a 100-watt transmitter, that would equate to a +50.0 dBm level. If you had a 2-microvolt signal, that would equate to a -100 dBm signal. If you have a 0.5 microvolt (µV) signal, that would be a -112 dBm.

Most two-way radio receivers operate in the range of -113 dBm to -124 dBm, while most wireless LAN receivers operate with a sensitivity level of -70 dBm to -100 dBm. Wi-Fi systems with extended range operate with a sensitivity of -130 dBm. GPS receivers have a sensitivity of -135 dBm. Most Communications Service Monitors have a sensitivity of -100 dBm.


dBd is used when expressing antenna gain based on the difference between the signal of a dipole antenna verses the signal gain from the given antenna. Antennas derive gain by redirecting the signal from undesirable or non-useful directions to more useful directions. This gain can be measured or calculated and is expressed in dBd.


As a ruse to make uninformed engineers and technicians think that an antenna has more gain than it really has, some manufacturers started using the term dBi to represent the gain over an ISOTROPIC point in space, which exists in theory only. There is a 2.1 dB difference between a dBd and a dBi. An example would be a 13.0 dBd gain antenna would also have a 15.1 dBi gain. In reality it is the same antenna.


A single tree can cause a signal to drop from 0 dB to as much as 20 dB (x 100). Likewise, a building can have an effect of 0 dB to more than 40 dB (x 10,000), depending upon the materials and metal content of a building. A hill or drop in elevation can have enough attenuation to possible kill the signal.

Added by Brad Dye (August 2021)

There are computer propagation programs on the market that can predict what the coverage will be, including the effect of the obstructions and ground elevations. When the radio manufacturers or radio dealers run their programs, they usually are very conservative in their predictions because they normally have a motto which is UNDER PROMISE and OVER PERFORM. This has two good effects for them. Firstly, they always deliver more in the system performance that they had the customer expecting. Secondly, the dealer or manufacturer can sell more equipment, because their studies indicated that the system required higher towers, more sites, or both. As the end customer, you want the actual coverage studies, as you probably have more spending requirements than you have a budget for if you are like most organizations. Even though the manufacture or radio dealer is willing to provide you propagation studies for free, this can sometimes cost you more in the long run. You might want an independent study if you are making a large investment or if you have a mission critical situation. Spending a few hundred dollars can save you thousands of dollars in the long run.

To be concluded next week.

If you can't wait for the next issue, the whole paper is here.

Ira Wiesenfeld, Principal Engineer — Ira Wiesenfeld and Associates

Ira Wiesenfeld, P.E., is a consulting engineer who has been involved with commercial radio systems since 1966. He has spent time working in the broadcast, two-way, mobile telephone, paging, microwave, military, and public safety radio systems, and has consulted with most of the major manufacturers in the radio industry. Ira is the author of Wiring for Wireless Sites, available from Delmar Thompson / Prompt Publishing (

Ira has a BSEE from Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas; an FCC General Radiotelephone Operator License; is a Senior Certified Radio Technician from the Electronics Technicians Association - International; and is a licensed Professional Engineer in the State of Texas. He holds an Extra class Amateur radio license WA5GXP. He has lived in Dallas, Texas his entire life. Ira can be reached by e-mail at or on the web at The original publication of this article was in MRT Magazine: (2009) on which this updated paper is based. (August 2021)

Source: Ira Wiesenfeld and Brad Dye  


“Six Feet Down”

Tuba Skinny, Aug. 1, 2021, Schooner Landing, Damarisotta, Maine. Great clarinet and washboard solos.

Erika Lewis: Vocals
Art Mayers: Video

Source: YouTube  

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